Automotive Manufacturing Process

Automotive Manufacturing Process



Automotive Manufacturing Process

Advanced Automobile
Jr.Technician Part 2

• Manufacturing is the transformation of materials into items of greater value by means of one or more process and or
assembly operation
• Manufacturing is the application of physical and chemical processes to alter the geometry, properties and or appearance of a given starting material to make parts or product
• Manufacturing is the making of goods by hand or by machine that upon completion the business sells to a customer.
Items used in manufacture may be raw materials or component parts of a larger product
• The manufacturing usually happens on a large-scale production line of machinery and skilled labor

A factory operates one of three types of manufacturing production:
• Make-To-Stock (MTS) – A factory produces goods to stock stores and showrooms. By predicting the market for their goods, the manufacturer will plan production activity in advance. If they produce too much they may need to sell surplus at a loss and in producing too little they may miss the market and not sell enough to cover costs
• Make-To-Order (MTO) – The producer waits for orders before manufacturing stock. Inventory is easier to control and the owner does not need to rely as much on market demand. Customer waiting time is longer though and the manufacturer needs a constant stream of orders to keep the factory in production
• Make-To-Assemble (MTA) – The factory produces component parts in anticipation of orders for assembly. By doing this, the manufacturer is ready to fulfil customer orders but if orders do not materialize, the producer will have a stock of unwanted parts

• Ferrous metals: carbon steels, alloy steels, stainless steels, and tool and die steels
• Nonferrous metals and alloys: Al, Mg, Cu, Ni, superalloys, Ti, refractory metals (Mb, Nb, W, Ta), beryllium, Zr, low melting alloys (lead, zinc and tin), and precious metals
• Plastics: Thermosets, thermoplastics, and elastomers
• Ceramics: Glass ceramics, glasses, graphite, and diamond
• Composites: Reinforced plastics, metal-matrix and ceramics-matrix composites, and honeycomb structures
• Nanomaterials, shape-memory alloys, metal foams, amorphous alloys, super conductors and semiconductors

• Manufacturing process are the steps through which raw materials are transformed into a final product.
• The manufacturing process begins with the product design, and materials specification from which the product is made
• These materials are then modified through manufacturing processes to become the required part
• Manufacturing process refers to science and technology of manufacturing products effectively, efficiently, economically and environment-friendly through
 Application of any existing manufacturing process and system
 Proper selection of input materials, tools, machines and environments
 Improvement of the existing materials and processes
 Development of new materials, systems, processes and techniques

It is extremely difficult to tell the exact number of various manufacturing processes existing and are being practiced presently because a spectacularly large number of processes have been developed till now and the number is still increasing exponentially with the growing demands and rapid progress in science and technology.
However, all such manufacturing processes can be broadly classified in four major groups as follows:
• Molding
• Machining
• Joining
• Shearing

• If the products you’re creating start out as liquid, chances are the manufacturer uses molding
• One popular type of molding is casting, which involves heating plastic until it becomes liquid, then pouring it into a mold
• Once the plastic cools, the mold is removed, giving you the desired shape
• You can also use casting to make plastic sheeting, which has a wide variety of applications
• There are four other types of molding: injection molding, which melts plastic to create 3-D materials such as butter tubs and toys; blow molding, used to make piping and milk bottles; compression molding, used for large-scale products like car tires; and rotational molding, used for furniture and shipping drums

Different types of molding processes form plastic into the desired shape based on the plastic’s intended use. Plastic manufacturing relies on different types of molding in a variety of shapes
• Plastic Molding Using Casting: Plastic molding using casting is the simplest method as plastic manufacturing as it requires the least amount of complex technology. Plastic is simply heated so it turns into a fluid, and then transferred into a mold. The plastic is left to cool and the mold is removed. This process can be used for intricate shapes and is performed under low pressure.
• Injection Molding of Plastic: Injection molding of plastic creates high-quality three-dimensional objects that can be commercially reproduced. The injection molding process begins by melting plastic in a hopper. The melted, liquid plastic is injected into a tightly closed, chilled mold. The plastic quickly takes the shape of the surrounding mold. Once it has completely set, the mold is opened to release the plastic object. The mold can generally be used many times before needing to be replaced. Plastic items such as yogurt cups, butter tubs, plastic toys and bottle caps use the injection molding process

• Blow Molding Plastic Manufacturing: Blow molding is a process used for making hollow objects such as piping or milk bottles. In the blow molding plastic manufacturing process, plastic is heated until molten. The liquid, molten plastic is injected into a cold mold. The mold has a tube set within it, which has a particular shape when inflated. While the plastic is molten, air is blown into the tube and the plastic is formed around the tubing. The plastic is left to cool and removed from the mold.
• Compression Molding of Plastic: Compression molding of plastic is the most labor-intensive type of molding process. Since compression molding is more complicated, it is typically only used for large-scale production purposes rather than mass production. For example, boat hulls and car tires are made using the compression molding method. Molten plastic is poured into a mold. Then a second mold is pressed into it. This squeezes the plastic into the desired shape before the plastic is left to cool and removed from the mold.
• Rotational Molding of Plastic: In this method, liquid plastic forms each object as it is added to the mold from the inside. Two mechanical arms hold the mold in place. The arms constantly rotate the mold at the same level, while molten plastic is placed inside. As the mold turns, the plastic coats the inside of the mold to create a new hollow, plastic object. Toys, shipping drum, storage tanks, etc. are made
using rotational molding

• Metal casting involves pouring liquid metal into a mold, which contains a hollow cavity of the desired shape, and then allowing it to cool and solidify
• The solidified part is also known as a casting, which is ejected or broken out of the mold to complete the process
• A mold is formed into the geometric shape of a desired part. Molten metal is then poured into the mold, the mold holds this material in shape as it solidifies
• Molds can be classified as either open or closed. An open mold is a container, like a cup, that has only the shape of the desired part

• The molten material is poured directly into the mold cavity which is exposed to the open environment
• The open mold is rarely used in manufacturing production, particularly for metal castings of any level of quality
• The other type of mold is a closed mold, it contains a delivery system for the molten material to reach the mold cavity, where the part will harden within the mold
• The closed mold is, by far, more important in manufacturing metal casting operations

• Pattern: Expendable molds require some sort of pattern. The interior cavities of the mold, in which the molten metal will solidify, are formed by the impression of this pattern. Pattern design is crucial to success in manufacture by expendable mold metal casting. The pattern is a geometric replica of the metal casting to be produced.
• Cores: For metal castings with internal geometry cores are used. A core is a replica, (actually an inverse), of the internal features of the part to be cast. Like a pattern, the size of the core is designed to accommodate for shrinkage during the metal casting operation. Unlike a pattern, a core remains in the mold while the metal is being poured. Hence, a core is usually made of a similar material as the mold.
• Mold: When manufacturing by metal casting, consideration of the mold is essential. The pattern is placed in the mold and the mold material is packed around it. The mold contains two parts, the drag (bottom), and the cope (top). The parting line between the cope and drag allows for the mold to be opened and the pattern to be removed once the impression has been made.

• Pouring: Pouring is a key element in the manufacturing process of metal casting and the main goal of pouring is to get metal to flow into all
regions of the mold before solidifying.
• Fluidity: The ability of a particular casting melt to flow into a mold before freezing is crucial in the consideration of metal casting techniques. This ability is termed the liquid metals fluidity
• Shrinkage: Most materials are less dense in their liquid state than in their solid state, and more dense at lower temperatures in general. Due to this nature, a metal casting undergoing solidification will tend to decrease in volume. During the manufacture of a part by casting this decrease in volume is termed shrinkage
• Risers: When designing a setup for manufacturing a part by metal casting, risers are almost always employed. As the metal casting begins to
experience shrinkage, the mold will need additional material to compensate for the decrease in volume. This can be accomplished by the employment of risers. Risers are an important component in the casting's gating system

• Powder metallurgy is the manufacturing science of producing solid parts of desired geometry and material from powders
• Commonly known as powder metallurgy, it may also be referred to as powder processing considering that non-metal powders can be involved
• Powders are compacted into a certain geometry then heated, (sintered), to solidify the part
• Size of powder particles is a factor that will affect processing of metal powders
• Screens for powder measurement are designated according to the number of openings per linear inch, (i.e. 30, 100)
• The structure, or shape, of particles is a major factor in a powder processing operation
• Material and method of powder production are the main variables determining powder shape
• Particles of a certain powder may have similar shapes but no particle shapes are exactly the same

• It would be difficult to make products like metal parts without the use of some type of machine
• Manufacturers use tools like saws, sheers and rotating wheels to
achieve the desired result
• There are also tools that use heat to shape items
• Laser machines can cut a piece of metal using a high-energy light beam, and plasma torches can turn gas into plasma using electricity
• Erosion machines apply a similar principle using water or electricity, and computer numerical control machines introduce computer programming into the manufacturing mix

Machining operations are classified into 3 principle processes and they are turning, drilling and milling. There are other operations too that fall in miscellaneous categories such as boring, sawing, shaping, and broaching. A specific machine tool is required for taking care of each machining operation,
• Drilling: In drilling process holes are created in the metal through circular cylinders. A twist drill is used for accomplishing this task. 75% of the metal cutting material is removed through the drilling operation. The drill enters the workpiece and cuts a hole which is equal to the diameter of the tool that was used for cutting the whole. A drill has a pointed end which can easily cut a hole in the work piece
• Turning: Turning is a lathe operation by which the metal is removed from the workpiece outside its diameter using a cutting tool. It is performed on a lathe which is a machine where the workpiece is adjusted and the tool is kept stationary whereas the workpiece is rotated. Lathes are specially designed for the turning operation and they help in cutting the metal in the most precise way. The workpiece is placed on the chuck and the machine rotates the stationary tool to cut the unwanted parts from the piece

• Milling: Milling is one of the fundamental operations in machining. This manufacturing process is less accurate than the turning processes because the degree of freedom is high. Milling fabricates the object which is not axially symmetric. A milling machine is required for this purpose along with a fixture, cutter and of course the workpiece. The workpiece here is the material that is already shaped and it needs milling. It is secured to the fixture, ready for being milled. The cutter is also secured to the machine. It has sharp teeth and it rotates at a high speed. The workpiece is fed to the cutter and it removes the unwanted metal from the piece
• Grinding: Grinding process is used for improving the finish of the surface and tightening up the tolerance by removing the remaining unwanted materials from the surface. Grinding machines are used for this purpose to produce parts of identical shape, size and finish.

• Broaching: Broaching is a machining process that uses a toothed tool, called a broach, to remove material. There are two main types of broaching: linear and rotary. In linear broaching, which is the more common process, the broach is run linearly against a surface of the workpiece to effect the cut. In rotary broaching, the broach is rotated and pressed into the workpiece to cut an axisymmetric shape.
• Boring: In machining, boring is the process of enlarging a hole that has already been drilled (or cast) by means of a single-point cutting tool (or of a boring head containing several such tools), such as in boring a gun barrel or an engine cylinder.
• Facing: In machining, facing is the act of cutting a face, which is a planar surface, onto the workpiece. Within this broadest sense there are various specific types of facing, with the two most common being facing in the course of turning and boring work (facing planes perpendicular to the rotating axis of the workpiece) and facing in the course of milling work (for example, face milling)

• Honing: Honing is an abrasive machining process that produces a precision surface on a metal workpiece by scrubbing an abrasive stone against it along a controlled path. Honing is primarily used to improve the geometric form of a surface, but may also improve the surface texture.
• Reaming: A reamer is a type of rotary cutting tool used in metalworking. Precision reamers are designed to enlarge the size of a previously formed hole by a small amount but with a high degree of accuracy to leave smooth sides. There are also non-precision reamers which are used for more basic enlargement of holes or for removing burrs. The process of enlarging the hole is called reaming.
• Shaping: Shaping is a manufacturing process of material removal in which the cutting tool reciprocates
against a stationary workpiece producing a plane or sculpted surface.

• Computer numerical control, or CNC, machining is a computer-aided technique that can be used in conjunction with a broad range of equipment
• It requires software and programming, usually in the G-code language, to guide a machining tool in shaping the workpiece according to preset parameters. As opposed to manually guided methods, CNC machining is an automated process. Some of its benefits include:
• High Production Cycles: Once the CNC machine has been properly coded, it usually needs minimal maintenance or
downtime, allowing for a faster production rate
• Low Manufacturing Costs: Due to its turnover speed and low manual labor requirements, CNC machining can be a cost-efficient process, particularly for high-volume production runs
• Uniform Production: CNC machining is typically precise and yields a high level of design consistency among its

• When a CNC system is activated, the desired cuts are programmed into the software and dictated to corresponding tools and machinery, which carry out the dimensional tasks as specified, much like a robot
• With a numerical control machine, programs are inputted via punch cards
• By contrast, the programs for CNC machines are fed to computers though small keyboards
• CNC programming is retained in a computer’s memory
• The code itself is written and edited by programmers
• Therefore, CNC systems offer far more expansive computational capacity
• Best of all, CNC systems are by no means static, since newer prompts can be added to pre-existing
programs through revised code

• In CNC, machines are operated via numerical control, wherein a software program is designated to control an object
• The language behind CNC machining is alternately referred to as G-code, and it’s written to control the various behaviors of a corresponding machine, such as the speed, feed rate and coordination
• Basically, CNC machining makes it possible to pre-program the speed and position of machine tool functions and run them via
software in repetitive, predictable cycles, all with little involvement from human operators
• Due to these capabilities, the process has been adopted across all corners of the manufacturing sector and is especially vital in the areas of metal and plastic production
• For starters, a 2D or 3D CAD drawing is conceived, which is then translated to computer code for the CNC system to execute
• After the program is inputted, the operator gives it a trial run to ensure no mistakes are present in the coding

• The Vertical Machining Center (VMC) is a precision tool used for shaping and fabrication by the removal of stock typically from metallic work pieces
• Plastics and other materials can also be machined on the milled pending upon tooling and material
• Mill controls may be manually operated, computer numerical controlled (CNC), or a combination of both
• Mill machining and material removal is typically made by a rotary cutter held in a spindle
• Cutting options are more sophisticated and variable than a drill press by virtue of a moveable table and/or vise (x and y- axes) and vertical spindle movement (z-axis)
• Many vertical mills also have a rotatable turret for the upper cutting head which provides even greater machining
options (b-axis)

Some of the common operations that can be performed on the VMC include:
• Milling– These operations provide a flat surface or spot on a work piece, typically with a specific orientation to other work piece features, surfaces, or another piece. Facing is sometimes used on an irregular shaped work piece to “true” one surface at a time to ensure that all surfaces have appropriate specific geometric relationships with each other
• Slotting or keyways – Slots, flats, or keyways can be cut with proper fixtures
• Drilling or boring – Where specific orientations are required between work piece features, the vertical mill provides the means to accurately index and machine holes

• You can only get so far with molds and machines
• At some point you need to be able to put multiple parts together to make one piece
• Joining includes welding, brazing, bolting soldering, adhesive bonding of materials
• Joining produce permanent joint between the parts to be assembled
• Joining cannot be separated easily by application of forces. They are mainly used
to assemble many parts to make a system
• Joining uses processes like welding and soldering to apply heat to combine materials
• Pieces can also be joined using adhesive bonding or fasteners

• Brazing: It is a joining process in which a filler metal is melted and distributed by capillary action between the faying (contact) surfaces of the metal parts being joined. Base material does not melt in brazing, only the filler melts. In brazing, the filler metal has a melting temperature (liquids) above 450°C, but below the melting point (solids) of base metals to be joined.
• Bolting: Bolting is a temporary joining process in which a threaded bolt is inserted in hole and it is tighten by nut in opposite side. Bolting is one of the most common elements in construction and machine design. They consist of fasteners that capture and join other parts, and are secured with the mating of screw threads.

• Soldering: Soldering is similar to brazing and can be defined as a joining process in which a filler metal with melting point (liquids) not exceeding 450°C is melted and distributed by capillary action between the faying surfaces of the metal parts being joined. As in brazing, no melting of the base metals occurs, but the filler metal wets and combines with the base metal to form a metallurgical bond. Filler metal, called Solder, is added to the joint, which distributes itself between the closely fitting parts.
• Riveting: Riveting is a forging process that may be used to join parts together by way of a metal part called a rivet. The rivet acts to join the parts through adjacent surfaces. A straight metal piece is connected through the parts. Then both ends are formed over the connection, joining the parts securely. The metal work piece used to form the connection may be hollow or it may be solid. Rivets have many uses, such as in the construction and sheet metal industries.

• Welding is a fabrication or sculptural process that joins materials, usually metals or thermoplastics, by using high heat to melt the parts together and allowing them to cool causing fusion
• Welding is a metal joining process in which two or more parts are joined or coalesced at their
contacting surfaces by suitable application of heat or/and pressure
• Some times, welding is done just by applying heat alone, with no pressure applied
• In some cases, both heat and pressure are applied; and in other cases only pressure is applied, without any external heat
• In some welding processes a filler material is added to facilitate coalescence

• Advantages of Welding:
• Welding provides a permanent joint
• Welded joint can be stronger than the parent materials if a proper filler metal is used that has strength properties better than that of parent base material and if defect less welding is done
• It is the economical way to join components in terms of material usage and fabrication costs
• Disadvantages of Welding:
• Labor costs are more since manual welding is done mostly
• Dangerous to use because of presence of high heat and pressure
• Disassembly is not possible as welding produces strong joints

• Butt joint: In Butt welded type, the parts lie in the same plane and are joined at their edges. It is a joint formed by two pieces of wood or metal united end to end without overlapping
• Corner joint: The parts in a corner joint form a right angle and are joined at the centre of the angle.
• Lap joint: Lap joint consists of two overlapping parts without change of any form
• Tee-joint: In a Tee-joint, one joint is the right angle to the other joint in the approximate shape of the
letter “T” Edge joint
• Edge joint: The parts in edge joint are parallel with at least one of their edges in common and the joint is
made at the common edges

• The gas welding is done by burning of combustible gas with air or oxygen in a concentrated flame of high temperature
• As with other welding methods, the purpose of the flame is to heat and melt the parent metal and filler rod of a joint
• Gas welding applications:
• It is used to join thin metal plates
• It can used to join both ferrous and non-ferrous metals
• Gas welding mostly used in fabrication of sheet metal
• It is widely used in automobile and aircraft industries

• Arc welding is a process that is used to join metal to metal by using electricity to create enough heat to melt metal, and the melted metals when cool result in a binding of the metals
• Arc welding involves the use of a power supply and electrodes in order to form a welding arc between the electrode and the material
being welded (usually metal), in order to melt the materials, allowing them to cool and fuse together
• Arc welding is probably the most popular type of welding process since it includes many of the most popular types of welding, such as MIG, TIG, Metal Arc Welding, Plasma Arc Welding, etc.
• Advantages of Arc Welding:
• This welding generates higher temperature than other types of welding
• This processes generates strong joints and also can be easily automated
• It gives concentrated heat

• Tungsten Inert Gas(TIG): In this welding process a non-consumable tungsten electrode is used to weld the material. The electrode is covered with gases like helium, argon etc. which protect the weld area from oxidization. It is used to weld thin sheets etc. It is also known as Gas Tungsten Arc Welding.
• Metal Inert Gas(MIG): In this arc welding process a metal electrode is used in welding. This electrode is either consumable or non-consumable according to the requirement. Mostly consumable electrode is used coated with flux. The main advantage of this process is that it need lower temperature than other. It is also known as Gas Metal Arc Welding.

• Metal Arc Welding: In this arc welding process a metal electrode is used in welding. This electrode is either consumable or non-consumable according to the requirement. Mostly consumable electrode is used coated with flux. The main advantage of this process is that it need lower temperature than other.
• Plasma Arc Welding: Plasma arc welding is similar to tungsten inert gas welding. In this welding process arc is generate between tungsten electrode and work piece. The main difference between PAW and TIG is that the electrode is situated inside the torch in PAW. It heated the gas at 30000 Fahrenheit and converts it into plasma which attack the welding area.

• When dealing with sheet metal, shearing comes into play
• Shearing uses cutting blades to make straight cuts into a piece of metal
• Also known as die cutting, you’ll often see shearing used on aluminum, brass, bronze
and stainless steel
• Another metal-shaping process is forming, which uses compression or another type of stress to move materials into a desired shape
• Although forming is often used with metal, it also can be used on other materials,
including plastic

• Punching: shearing process using a die and punch where the interior portion of the sheared sheet is to be discarded
• Slotting: punching operation that forms rectangular holes in the sheet. Sometimes described as piercing
despite the different shape
• Perforating: punching a number of holes in a sheet
• Parting: shearing the sheet into two or more pieces
• Notching: removing pieces from the edges 6. Lancing: leaving a tab without removing any material

• Metal rolling is one of the most important manufacturing processes in the modern world
• The large majority of all metal products produced today are subject to metal rolling at one point in their manufacture
• Metal rolling is often the first step in creating raw metal forms
• The ingot or continuous casting is hot rolled into a bloom or a slab, these are the basic structures for the creation of a wide range of manufactured forms
• Blooms typically have a square cross section of greater than 6x6 inches
• Slabs are rectangular and are usually greater than 10 inches in width and more than 1.5 inches in thickness
• Rolling is most often, (particularly in the case of the conversion of an ingot or continuous
casting), performed hot

• Metal forging is a metal forming process that involves applying compressive forces to a work piece to
deform it, and create a desired geometric change to the material
• The forging process is very important in industrial metal manufacture, particularly in the extensive iron and steel manufacturing industry
• A steel forge is often a source of great output and productivity
• Work stock is input to the forge, it may be rolled, it may also come directly from cast ingots or continuous castings
• The forge will then manufacture steel forgings of desired geometry and specific material properties
• Metal forging is known to produce some of the strongest manufactured parts compared to other metal manufacturing processes, and not just limited to iron and steel forging but to other metals as well

• Metal extrusion is a metal forming process in which a work piece, of a certain length and cross section, is forced to flow through a die of
a smaller cross sectional area, thus forming the work to the new cross section
• The length of the extruded part will vary, dependent upon the amount of material in the work piece and the profile extruded
• Numerous cross sections are manufactured by this method
• The cross section produced will be uniform over the entire length of the metal extrusion
• Starting work is usually a round billet, which may be formed into a round part of smaller diameter, a hollow tube, or some other profile

• Metal drawing is a manufacturing process that forms metal work stock by reducing its cross section
• This is accomplished by forcing the work through a mold, (die), of smaller cross sectional area than the work
• This process is very similar to metal extrusion, the difference being in the application of force
• In extrusion the work is pushed through the die opening, where in drawing it is pulled through
• Many of the same manufacturing factors of metal extrusion are also present in metal drawing

• Digital manufacturing is an integrated approach to manufacturing that is centered around a computer system. The transition to digital
manufacturing has become more popular with the rise in the quantity and quality of computer systems in manufacturing plants.
• Digital Manufacturing (DM) is a process that uses additive manufacturing technology to make production parts and manufacturing tools. Directly from 3D cad data, components are manufactured layer-by-layer without molding, casting or machining. The opportunities and advantages of DDM are extensive. And many companies are just beginning to realize the positive impact that DDM can have on their business.
• These are the 7 key advantages of Direct Digital Manufacturing:
1. Rapid Deployment - The "On Demand" nature of the technology allows you to get to market faster.
2. Low Capital Expenditure - Parts built directly from digital data, no need for tooling.
3. Unlimited Complexity - Building in layers allows unlimited freedom in your design.
4. Freedom to Redesign - No penalties during production when changes are needed.
5. Part Consolidation - Combine multiple components into one.
6. Short-Run Manufacturing - DDM is an ideal solution when you need only a few thousand parts.
7. Innovation - Designs are no longer held back by the constraints of traditional manufacturing techniques.

• Digital manufacturing is an integrated approach to manufacturing that is centered around a computer system. The transition to digital
manufacturing has become more popular with the rise in the quantity and quality of computer systems in manufacturing plants.
• Digital Manufacturing (DM) is a process that uses additive manufacturing technology to make production parts and manufacturing tools. Directly from 3D cad data, components are manufactured layer-by-layer without molding, casting or machining. The opportunities and advantages of DDM are extensive. And many companies are just beginning to realize the positive impact that DDM can have on their business.
• These are the 7 key advantages of Direct Digital Manufacturing:
1. Rapid Deployment - The "On Demand" nature of the technology allows you to get to market faster.
2. Low Capital Expenditure - Parts built directly from digital data, no need for tooling.
3. Unlimited Complexity - Building in layers allows unlimited freedom in your design.
4. Freedom to Redesign - No penalties during production when changes are needed.
5. Part Consolidation - Combine multiple components into one.
6. Short-Run Manufacturing - DDM is an ideal solution when you need only a few thousand parts.
7. Innovation - Designs are no longer held back by the constraints of traditional manufacturing techniques.

• Agile manufacturing is a term applied to an organization that has created the processes, tools, and training to enable it to respond quickly
to customer needs and market changes while still controlling costs and quality. It's mostly related to lean manufacturing.
• Markets can change very quickly, especially in the global economy. A company which cannot adapt quickly to change may find itself left behind, and once a company starts to lose market share, it can fall rapidly. The goal of agile manufacturing is to keep a company ahead of the competition so that consumers think of that company first, which allows it to continue innovating and introducing new products, because it is financially stable and it has a strong customer support base.
• Modular, customer-focused product design
• Information technology
• Corporate partners
• Knowledge culture
• Lean Manufacturing
• Example: Dell was a perfect example of an agile manufacturing company. Dell started as a custom personal computer building company and they beat the competition because they made custom, to-order computers just for their individual customers. HP, Compaq, Packard-Bell, and IBM could not compete with this agile company.

• Platform is the base for derivative of similar configuration, yet an appropriate level of differentiation.
• In simple terms its physical grouping of set of system, aggregates, components to produce multiple products like hatch,
sedan, station wagon etc.
• The platform hear means mix of floor, firewall and other structural parts along with modular aggregates like power train, chassis parts to achieve commonality to reduce development time, cost and sharing of plants etc.
To have multiple product like hatch, sedan, station Wagon etc the rear floor, tail gate and some chassis parts are modified to have different performance level for different product line.


Hatch Back and a Sedan using the same Platform
Hatch Backs and respective Notch Back / Sedan

Automotive testing categories:
• Simulation—Proof of concept
• Material Testing—tensile, proof load of fasteners, hardness, chemical analysis etc
• Rig testing of whole vehicle—four poster
• Rig testing of systems—engine dyno, axle and gear box for performance and durability
• Field Durability—torture track
• Performance—mileage accumulation, cold chamber, brake tests, gradient, water wading, ageing test for rubber
• Effect on environment—Emission tests, NVH testing
• Comfort—Jury tests, HVAC tests
• Safety—Crash tests
• Corrosion / Climate testing—Climate chamber, salt spray

• Simulation is a computer process in virtual environment. Computer knows detailed geometry of a part as well as engineering parameters such as welding, fastening. In addition when other property inputs and boundary conditions are fed in the computer it analyses the stress pattern and can even predict durability. Packages for manufacturability also are available which simulate various operation virtually.
• Results can be seen without actually performing operation or making a component. Whole system and even complete product simulation packages are available. Therefore, behavior of a designed vehicle on a gradient on rough road can be seen and studied without subjecting a prototype to testing
• However, simulation has its limitations and actual trials, testing and evaluation needs to be done.

Material tests are important and help in determining utility of its usage for component being designed.
Mechanical: Strength, endurance, hardness, toughness load / deflection etc. Physical: Optical, thermal, density, melting point, flammability, melt flow etc. Chemical: Chemical composition, corrosion and environmental properties
• Material testing is done for quality checks also
• Specialized laboratories do material testing
• Various instruments are available for material testing

• Rig testing is testing of a component, system or even full vehicle in laboratory. Advantage is that subject item need not be taken to the field. Results are available in relatively shorter time. Disadvantage is that the rig design and manufacture is expensive and accelerated testing may not reproduce failures in the field. Rig testing is done to check performance and durability and accelerated testing is done to reproduce possible failures. Rig testing must reproduce actions and conditions experienced in the field.
Rig testing is extensively used to test vehicles, gear boxes, axles, brakes, wheels, propeller shafts and many other systems and components.

Driving Cycle Field Testing is done to used to assess durability, performance, fuel consumption and pollutants emissions of a vehicle in a standardized way. Durability of entire vehicle or systems / components can be tested thus. Used for mileage accumulation as well.
Various cycles are used specifically for homologation. They have to fulfil distance,
duration and average speed parameters.

Major driving cycles:
• European (New European Driving Cycle-NEDC)
• Artemis (Rural, Urban, Highway)
• American (FTP-75, Highway Fuel Economy Test-HWFET, US06, SC03 and Cold Cycle)
• Japanese (10-15 Mode, JC08)
• Global Harmonized or Worldwide Harmonized Light Vehicle Test Procedure (WLTP)

WLTP is most important. It has Classes 1, 2 and 3 based on power to weight ratio and speeds as well a Heavy Duty Test Cycles

Torture track running is carried out for accelerated testing for durability and to produce failures likely to occur in field.


Articulated test track

Belgian pave test track

Pothole track

Torture track operation of a vehicle results in extreme stresses in the structural components like frame, gussets etc. In addition it shows efficacy of packaging. Vehicle gets twisted, bent and shocks of high magnitude.
There are many different types of torture tracks like sand, Boltzmann, corrugated, pothole etc. to subject vehicle to extreme stresses.

• Some normal surface tracks are also used to study vehicle dynamics, suspension response, steering response, water ingress in cab, gradient
climb torque requirement etc.
Gradient track Corrugated track
Inclined track Circular track Water wading track

• Environmental testing includes effect of product on the environment as well as effect of environment on the product. This comprises of
cold chamber tests, NVH tests, emission tests done on dyno by OEMs though they can be done by instruments on roadside too.

• Anechoic chamber is a facility to test noise made by powertrain and even door closing etc. Tests are done for compliance with norms.
• Emission tests are done to see if the pollutants generated by vehicle are within specified norms.
• Wind tunnel testing measures drag coefficient and resistance to wind which affects efficiency of a vehicle.
• Cold climate tests are done to see effect of extreme cold on the vehicle (like effect on plastic, rubber components and paint) and also its cold startability.
• Rain test chamber simulates rain and storm conditions and tests vehicles in those conditions such as dynamics and ingress of water.
• Many environmental test set-ups carry performance testing under various environmental conditions.
• In addition tests are conducted in laboratories by special instruments for odour, fogging, accelerated weathering and sun simulation, light
fastness of interior/exterior etc.

• Ergonomic study is carried out to study the comfort offered by a vehicle to the occupants. It includes average (95 percentile) knee room, leg room, head room available to the occupants as well as ease of ingress and egress; ease of operations such as steering, brakes and force required for operating levers and buttons. It also identifies pinch points, sharp corners and hot spots which could be injurious to occupants. Ergonomics involves subjective testing and testing with standard mannequin.

Head Room

Schematic of Driver’s Seat Ergonomics

• Crash tests determine the extent of damage to the vehicle and injury to various body parts of the occupants. It also checks airbag
deployment in specified time and performance of various crash barriers.
Crash tests are done to ensure compliance to regulations / get rating such as NCAP Star rating

• Since automobile body has to protect systems and occupants in all-weather conditions it is important that it resists corrosion and weathering. Therefore, climate chamber testing for certain conditions and salt spray chamber testing for designated number of hours are important tests.

• A typical salt spray cabinet consists of a chamber having a blower pump to subject test samples to a mist spray of 5% sodium chloride solution. Periodic inspection of samples is done to assess corrosion damage.

• Airbag technology optimizes crash occupant kinematics, significantly reducing chest deflection, and mitigating occupant submarining effect.
• Adaptive airbag solutions are a revolutionary step forward in smart airbag technology offering significantly increased protection of smaller or out-of-position occupants. These systems protect during automobile frontal collisions, while offering reduced weight, size, and cost
• Airbags combine with the seat belts to reduce the risk of severe head and chest injuries in collisions with a certain severity.
• If the crash sensors register an impact that exceeds the value needed to trigger the airbags, the airbag control ignites the gas generator.
• This inflates the airbags, which are located in the steering wheel and the dashboard in front of the front-seat passenger within 30 to 40

• Electronics plays an important role in safety and security of the car.
• Passenger safety, needs to be most vital feature in a passenger car. This is achieved by various systems. Use of electronics facilitates fast
operation of these systems without compromising the safety.
• Supplementary Restraint System (SRS Airbag), Anti-lock Braking System are some examples of safety systems.
• A passenger car, though a utility, is also an asset for all of us. Thus, car security is necessary.
• Electronics systems such as Immobilizer provide car security from theft and unauthorized access.

SRS Airbag

Anti-lock Braking System - Explanation

Immobilizer – Security Feature


• Driver Airbag
• An airbag is a vehicle safety device. It is an occupant restraint consisting of a flexible envelope designed to inflate rapidly in an automobile collision, to prevent vehicle occupants from striking interior objects such as the steering wheel or window.
• Driver airbags inflate in frontal crashes, protecting the driver's head and body from
hitting the steering wheel or other parts of the vehicle's interior
• Normally the driver side airbag is folded into the center part of the steering wheel and is stored inside the steering wheel cover. When a collision occurs, the airbag breaks through the tear-seam (an indented line partition) on the back side of the steering wheel cover as it inflates to protect the driver.



Ford gets the credit for being first to offer inflatable seatbelts in a high-volume production vehicle:


• The front passenger side airbag is housed in the dashboard. When a collision occurs, the airbag breaks through the tear-seam (an indented line partition) of the dashboard as it inflates to protect the passenger. Since the space between the front passenger seat
and the dashboard is larger than the space between the driver and the steering wheel, the passenger seat airbag is about twice the size of the driver side airbag.
• Passenger airbags inflate in frontal crashes, preventing the front-seat passenger from hitting the dashboard or other parts of the vehicle's interior
• The passenger airbag reduces fatalities in frontal crashes by approximately 20% (for belted front seat occupants).
• It deploys in 50 milliseconds, half the time of the “blink of an eye".

• The passenger airbag is mounted in the dashboard on the passenger side.
• Typical cushion size varies from 90 to 150 litres.
• In most cars today, the necessary opening flap for the airbag on the dashboard is covered by a decorative skin, so the airbag remains out of sight until needed.
• A reliable deployment is ensured by a predetermined, non-visible tear line on the underside of the dashboard.
• A standard passenger airbag module consists of:
• 1. an inflator with an initiator,
• 2. a textile bag (cushion),
• 3. a housing, a deflector (inside the cushion) and
• 4. a cover.

• Side Curtain airbags form a cushion between the occupant and the window, protecting the occupant's head from striking the side of the
car or intruding vehicles in side-impact crashes.
• Curtain airbags are installed inside the headliner, above the side windows. Unlike other types of airbags, curtain airbags may be required
to maintain their inflated shape for several seconds.
• During rollover events, this would help protect the head from injury and may prevent the passengers from being thrown outside the vehicle. The Curtain airbags are installed on a wide range of automobile styles, from two-seaters to vehicles with three rows of seats. They must be specifically designed for the shape of the windows and the layout of the seats.

• Knee airbags are designed to reduce leg injury and can be mounted on both the driver and passenger sides
• Knee airbags significantly reduce the risk for injuries to the knee, thigh and hip. Although these injuries are not fatal, they often cause life-
long disability and represent 23% of the active-life years lost due to injury in frontal crashes involving motor vehicles.

S. No. Type of Airbag Capacity (cushion size) Deployment
Time (MS) Protection Remarks
Driver Airbag
30 to 60 liters Protecting the driver's head and body from hitting the steering wheel or other parts of the vehicle's interior
Cushion Material: Nylon
Passenger Airbag 90 to 150 liters. (Since the space between the front passenger seat and the dashboard is larger than the space between the driver and the steering wheel, the passenger seat airbag is about twice the size of the driver side airbag).
It deploys in 50 milliseconds (blink of an eye)
Passenger airbags inflate in frontal crashes, preventing the front-seat passenger from hitting the dashboard or other parts of the vehicle's interior
Curatin Airbag
Unlike other types of airbags, curtain airbags may be required to maintain their inflated shape for several seconds.
Less than 25
Side Curtain airbags form a cushion between the occupant and the window, protecting the occupant's head from striking the side of the car or intruding vehicles in side-impact crashes.
During rollover events, this would help protect the head from injury and
may prevent the passengers from being thrown outside the vehicle Life-threatening head injuries
Two main categories of Inflatable Curtains are produced today.
The first is designed to absorb the energy of a direct
side impact called "First Impact".
The second type of curtain is able to provide energy absorption up to several seconds in rollovers and in case of second impact.
Knee Airbag
Knee airbags are designed to reduce leg injury and can be mounted on both the driver and passenger sides.
Knee airbags significantly reduce the risk for injuries to the knee, thigh and hip. Although these injuries are not fatal, they often cause life-
long disability
The knee airbag not only reduces leg injuries but also provides benefits for the head and chest by keeping the occupant in the proper position to receive maximum protection afforded by the regular frontal airbag.
5 Side Airbag
6 Seat Belt Airbag

• The principal loads applied to first order and early finite element analysis are gross simplifications of actual complex road loading events.
• The actual process begins with sampling of the customer load environment on public roads which involves instrumenting a statistically valid sample of vehicles and measuring their use in customers’ hands across applicable geographic regions.
• These data are then used to create, modify or update company proving ground road schedules to better match real world customer usage.
• The simplified load estimates presented in the sections are recommended to be applied only in the preliminary design stage, when the absence of test or simulation data warrants it.
• They should always be qualified and updated as more information becomes available.
• Additionally, each company will have its own load factors, based on experience of successful designs, which may not necessarily be identical to the load factors.

• Environment and customer usage data are the historical basis for the road surface types, test distance, speed and number of repetitions applied to the proving ground’s durability test schedules.
• The proving ground can provide the equivalent of, for example, 100 000 miles (160 000 km) of high severity customer usage in a fraction of
the distance.
• Because even this fraction can represent several months or more of actual testing, companies have developed laboratory tests to further compress development and validation time.
• These tests provide a simulation of the proving ground’s road load environment through computer programmed actuators applied at the tyres or wheel spindles.
• As far as the passenger car body structure is concerned, the significant proving ground events can be reduced to two types:
• Instantaneous overloads
• Fatigue damage

The below table compares these load types and lists some of the typical proving ground events.
Type of Load Number of event
repetitions Load Amplitude (N) Acceptance Criteria Ground Event Example
Instantaneous Overload Low: <10 High: 104 Limited permanent deformation, maintenance of function Large pot-holes, kerb bumps, large bumps, panic braking, high g cornering, high power- train torque, overland transport, service
Fatigue High: 102 Moderate: 103 Cycles or distance to crack initiation, limited crack propagation, maintenance of function Cobblestone track, medium size pot-holes, Belgium block road, twist course, transport, service

Fig. Example of fatigue loading event. Fig. Example of proving ground event.

• The vehicle designer needs to know the worst or most damaging loads to which the structure is likely to be subjected,
 To ensure that the structure will not fail in service due to instantaneous overload
 To ensure a satisfactory fatigue life.
• If the structure can resist the (rare) worst possible loading which can be encountered, then it is likely to have sufficient fatigue strength.
• For early design calculations, the actual dynamic loading on the vehicle is often replaced by a ‘factored static loading’, thus:
dynamic load ≡ (static load) × (dynamic load factor)
• An extra ‘factor of safety’ is sometimes used:
i.e. equivalent load ≡ (static load) × (dynamic load factor) × (safety factor)
• In order to apply this approach, certain load cases are considered. For early design consideration, these will be ‘global’ road load cases,
i.e. affecting the structure as a whole.
• As the design develops, local load cases (e.g. door slam, hinge loads, bracket forces, etc.) will be used.

• The principal ‘normal running’ global road load cases are as follows (see Fig. for axis directions):
 Vertical symmetrical (‘bending case’) causes bending about the Y–Y axis
 Vertical asymmetric (‘torsion case’) causes torsion about the X–X axis and bending about the Y–Y axis.
 Fore and aft loads (braking, acceleration, obstacles, towing)
 Lateral (cornering, nudging kerb, etc.)

 Local load cases, e.g. door slam, etc.
 Crash cases


Fig.3 : Vehicle Axis System

• Stiff cage Structural Concept
Frontal offset Crash – 40 kmph

• Factory installed systems monitoring and reporting health of vehicle equipment to owner and manufacturer periodically
• Human-Machine Interface (HMI) is a user interface or dashboard that enables drivers and passengers to interact with their vehicles through mechanical buttons, levers, or through more sophisticated software that interprets voice and gesture commands.
Application of Prognostics in Automotive systems

• Vehicle telematics:
• Vehicle telematics combines GPS systems, onboard vehicle diagnostics, wireless telematics devices, and black box technologies to record and transmit vehicle data, such as speed, location, maintenance requirements and servicing, and cross-reference this data with the vehicle's internal behavior.
• Advantages of Telematics
 The fuel cost will be reduced
 Enhanced safety
 Better Communication
 Productivity
 Fleet Optimization
 Compliance
 Expandability
Vehicle telematics system

• A connected car is a car that can communicate bidirectional with other systems outside of the car (LAN).
• This allows the car to share internet access, and hence data, with other devices both inside and outside the vehicle.
• For safety-critical applications, it is anticipated that cars will also be connected using dedicated short-range communications (DSRC) or cellular radios, operating in the FCC-granted 5.9 GHz band with very low latency.
• Types of connectivity:
1. V2I "Vehicle to Infrastructure": The technology captures data generated by the vehicle and provides information about the infrastructure to the driver. The V2I technology communicates information about safety, mobility or environment-related conditions.[9]
2. V2V "Vehicle to Vehicle": The technology communicates information about speed and position of surrounding vehicles through a wireless exchange of information. The goal is to avoid accidents, ease traffic congestions and have a positive impact on the environment.[10]
3. V2C "Vehicle to Cloud": The technology exchanges information about and for applications of the vehicle with a cloud system. This allows the vehicle to use information from other, though the cloud connected industries like energy, transportation and smart homes and make use of IoT.[11]
4. V2P "Vehicle to Pedestrian": The technology senses information about its environment and communicates it to other vehicles, infrastructure and personal mobile devices. This enables the vehicle to communicate with pedestrians and is intended to improve safety and mobility on the road.[12]
5. V2X "Vehicle to Everything": The technology interconnects all types of vehicles and infrastructure systems with another. This connectivity includes cars, highways, ships, trains and airplanes

• Features of Connected Vehicles :
• Internet Connectivity in Cars
• App to Car Connectivity
• Protecting Young Drivers with “Curfews”
• Vehicle to Vehicle Communication
• Entertainment
• Remote Parking
• Security
• 5G and Connected Cars:

• Self-driving cars or autonomous cars might be the future of mobility, but for now, it’s
the connected vehicles which are breaking the barrier of conventional systems.
• Connected Cars available in India -
• Kia Seltos, MG Hector, Nissan Kicks, Hyundai Venue & Many other examples

Kia Seltos

• A self-driving car, also known as an autonomous vehicle (AV or auto), driverless car, or robo- car is a vehicle that is capable of sensing its environment and moving safely with little or no human input.
• Self-driving cars combine a variety of sensors to perceive their surroundings, such as radar, lidar, sonar, GPS, odometry and inertial measurement units. Advanced control systems interpret sensory information to identify appropriate navigation paths, as well as obstacles and relevant signage.
• Autonomous vs. automated:
• “Automated vehicle" means a motor vehicle designed and constructed to move autonomously for certain periods of time without continuous driver supervision but in respect of which driver intervention is still expected or required.
• “Fully automated vehicle" means a motor vehicle that has been designed and constructed to
move autonomously without any driver supervision.

Self-driving Waymo car
Lexus RX450h retrofitted by Google

• Levels of driving automation :
• In SAE's automation level definitions, "driving mode" means "a type of driving scenario with characteristic dynamic driving task requirements (e.g., expressway merging, high speed cruising, low speed traffic jam, closed-campus operations, etc.)

• Advanced driver-assistance systems (ADAS) are electronic systems in a vehicle that use advanced technologies to assist the driver. They can include many active safety features, and often the terms “ADAS” and “active safety” are used interchangeably.
• Working :
• Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) using camera-based sensors help the driver and vehicle have greater awareness of the driving environment. Cameras are positioned outside the vehicle on the front, back and sides to capture images of the road, street signs, pedestrians, vehicles, and other obstacles.

• Almost all vehicle accidents are caused by human error, which can be avoided with Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS).
• Most common ADAS applications :
• Adaptive Cruise Control
• Glare-Free High Beam and Pixel Light
• Adaptive Light Control
• Automatic Parking
• Autonomous Valet Parking
• Navigation System
• Night Vision
• Blind Spot Monitoring
• Automatic Emergency Braking
• Crosswind Stabilization
• Driver Drowsiness Detection
• Driver Monitoring System

• Common rail is a fuel injection system found in modern diesel engines. Common rail systems provide a level of flexibility which can be exploited for class leading emission control, power and fuel consumption. This enables Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) to design for optimum performance and exceptional end-user value across a range of machines and applications.
• Working :
• The fuel in an electronically controlled engine is stored at variable pressure in a cylinder or ‘rail’ connected to the engine’s fuel injectors via individual pipes, making it a ‘common rail’ to all the injectors. The pressure is controlled by a fuel pump but it is the fuel injectors, working in parallel with the fuel pump, that control the timing of the fuel injection and the amount of fuel injected. In contrast earlier mechanical systems rely on the fuel pump for pressure, timing and quantity.
• A further advantage of the CRDi system is that it injects the fuel directly into the combustion
chamber. The indirect injection (IDI) system in older engines injected fuel into a pre-combustion
chamber which then fed the main combustion chamber

• Noise, vibration and harshness (NVH) are improved with CRDi as a result of the timing flexibility.
• Engine sounds quieter and has a better quality of sound. It also runs smoother.
• Fuel consumption benefits as well because greater injection pressure produces a finer spray of fuel (atomisation) that burns more efficiently.
• Better combustion efficiency is a key part of meeting emission standards. Less
fuel is wasted as soot or particulates in the exhaust and deposits in the engine.
• A cleaner running engine is good for the environment – and for the cost of ownership. Cleaner running improves the long-term durability and reliability of your engine.
CRDI system

• MPFI-Multi Point Fuel Injection System Introduction :
• The MPFI is a system or method of injecting fuel into internal combustion engine through multi ports situated on intake valve of each cylinder. It delivers an exact quantity of fuel in each cylinder at the right time. There are three types of MPFI systems
1. Batched
2. Simultaneous
3. Sequential.

• Working of MPFI System :
1. In the MPFI system, using the fuel pump which is driven by the electric motor is used to spray fuel into the engine intake manifold.
2. This technique helps to provide an accurate air-fuel ratio at all operating conditions.
3. The suction pressure of the engine is used to spray the fuel into the cylinders ( In carburetors, the vacuum is used to provide the fuel).
4. As shown in the figure, you can see that a single injector is placed on the intake port of the different cylinders.
5. Using the electrical fuel pump, fuel from the fuel tank supplies to each fuel injector equally.
6. The process of fuel injection occurs simultaneously in each injector once in every rotation.
• Advantages of MPFI system:
• The power generated by the engine is more than the carburetion system.
• Due to the accurate mixture of air-fuel supplied to each cylinder, the difference between power generated at each cylinder is negligible.
• Engine vibrations from MPFI equipped engines are very less, hence the life of MPFI system equipped engines is high.
• This system is very responsive in case of sudden acceleration or deceleration.
• Lower fuel consumption leads to better mileage.
• The volumetric efficiency of MPFI is high.

• VVT System:
• Special cam wheel that bolted onto a small block Ford engine's cam, and it had a mechanism that worked like a mechanical advance system in a distributor, so that as the revs picked up it advanced the cam timing. I also believe that Alfa Romeo or Fiat used a similar system back around then, or maybe before)
• VVT is simple and fairly effective. It consists of only two main parts; an 'oil control solenoid' and the VVT mechanism itself.
• This diagram shows a few more bits & pieces, but you can clearly see the main two - the VVT pulley and the OCV. (Oil Control Valve, or oil solenoid as it's often called.)
• The early VVT system was relatively simple, ie, at a specific rpm (~4400rpm on the 20 valve 4AGE's) the computer signals the OCV to open, this lets oil pressure go through a special gallery in the #1 inlet cam bearing, through the centre of the inlet cam to the VVT pulley. There's a small piston in the VVT pulley, and once it gets enough pressure behind it, it starts to move outwards, causing the outer part of the pulley to turn in relation to the inner part, due to the helical spline that guides the piston's fore & aft movement.
VVT System

 Vehicle Category
 Emission
 Braking
 Door latch and its retention
 Safety belt, restrain system, Crashworthy
 Lightings / illuminations
 Foot control Arrangement
 Prevention of Fire risk




• Automotive homologation is the process of certifying vehicles or a particular component in a vehicle that it has satisfied the requirements set by various statutory regulatory bodies.
• The process of certifying the vehicles for roadworthiness as per specified criteria laid by Government for all vehicles made or
imported in the country .It is mandatory to get this approval to export automobile products or components.

• Homologation standards are applicable to all kinds of automobiles especially in the areas of environment and safety. Prior to sales of motor vehicles, automotive systems and their components should necessarily have approvals according to the official standards of their destination countries.
• The tests ensure that the vehicle matches the requirements in terms of emission and safety and road-worthiness standards as
notified under the Central Motor Vehicle Rule - 1988
• The number of rules and norms applying to automobiles has increased globally due to increased emphasis on safety and
environmental protection.
• Automobile and spare part manufacturers and suppliers have to comply with these regulations according to the destination country/ region of their product. These standards aim at improving active and passive car safety, environmental protection as well as the quality of products and production process.

The homologation process consists of several steps:
• Component approval (lamps, mirrors, tires etc.) .
• Component fitting to the vehicle (electric/electronic sub assemblies, car audio systems etc.) .
• System approvals (breaking, exhaust emission etc.) .
• Whole vehicle type approval (WVTA) .

Need of homologation:
• Imported car must have been homologated at the origin country ,The problem is that a car that is tuned to the fuel condition and road conditions of a more developed market need not necessarily work in India.
• For instance, our fuel quality is so poor that manufacturers often need to tweak their engines to make them India-worthy. Also, each country has separate homologation laws and not all of them are relevant to India. So, according to the government notification every original car model brought into the country by an individual or a manufacturer has to have a local homologation clearance. Once a model or a prototype is homologated, other similar cars do need to be separately certified.

• Self-certification is a process in which a manufacturer internally validates a vehicle’s conformity to the applicable regulatory requirements of a country or community.
• It is not necessary for concerned government authority to witness testing.
• Self-certification process requires proper documentation, test methods, responsibilities and evidence of testing.
• Vehicle can be registered and sold based on the manufacturer’s self-certification declaration.
• Government agency may still test production vehicles to verify compliance.
In addition a third party New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) for vehicle safety rating is extensively sought for certification. NCAP offers their star rating for newly introduced cars and cars specifically given for rating. It is a prestigious and widely followed rating.

A typical salt spray cabinet consists of a chamber
having a blower pump to subject test samples to a
mist spray of 5% sodium chloride solution. Periodic
inspection of samples is done to assess corrosion


• Practical on Automotive Cut Sections demonstrate the learning by applying the knowledge.
• Draw suitable sketches to show functions of various components.
• Comparative analysis on body over chassis & monocoque body.
• Practical on internal & external body components.
• Study two different vehicles and prepare a report to show differences between these two vehicles.
• Observe the defects in vehicle for irregularity in gaps & flushness & painting.
• Assemble the connections of Engine and explain the basic working of the engine.
• Study the Fuel system and prepare a report by drawing a schematic diagram. List the important parts and their function
• Study the Manual and Power Steering Systems and identify the important difference between these two systems.
• Study the Gear Box and explain the function of Gear Box & calculate gear ratio of it.
• To study the Charging of automobile battery, measuring cell voltage, specific gravity of electrolyte.
• Perform fault diagnosis on electrical wiring harness
• Enlist Materials used in given vehicle with their components.
• Identify & Enlist various welding processes used in automotive vehicle.
• Identify & Enlist spot welded automotive assemblies.

• Enlist all types of vehicle testing in automotive industry.
• Compare crash test parameters required for frontal, side, rear & pole test crash.
• Identify air bags provided in vehicle & analyze the process of air bag deployment.
• Identify areas where NVH has performed and procedure for NVH testing.
• Study the Exhaust system and draw a simple sketch to explain the function of each part.
• Observe & Analyze components of exhaust system of provided vehicle.
• Explain process of analyzing exhaust using exhaust gas analyzer & study PUC report.
• Compare “Bharat stage IV” & “Bharat stage VI” emission norms and related changes required in engine and exhaust.
• Identify certification process required for given automotive component.

• Market Research on Current types of commercial & Passenger Vehicle with its specifications (Torque, gear ratio, compressor ratio, Volume of engine, type of coolant, etc).
• Benchmarking of any two vehicle with its concern details & Specifications.
• Prepare the manufacturing workflow to make a complete vehicle by studying vehicle physically.
• Top 10 Common Faults and their diagnosis and solution of these automotive system (Braking, suspension, Electrical, starting, charging, Noise & Vibration etc.)
• Identify & elaborate the manufacturing processes automotive component (Crankshaft, cylinder head, cylinder block, connecting rod, gear
box housing, BIW exterior components etc.)
• Compare diesel and petrol car with all its subcomponents, advantages & disadvantages.
• Study the braking System and prepare a report by drawing a simple schematic diagram of braking system and indicate the important
components and their functions.
• Practical on physical assembly of HVAC system; draw and name important components and their functions the HVAC System.
• Analyze role of advance fuel injection system (MPFI) in modern vehicle
• Any other / Industrial live problems.

• https://www.automotiveengineeringhq.com/car-aesthetic-designer/
• https://www.ncpedia.org/automobile-social-game-changer-k-8
• https://science.jrank.org/pages/680/Automobile-Structure-automobile.html
• https://ncert.nic.in/vocational/pdf/ivas103.pdf
• https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drivetrain
• https://learnmechanical.com/types-of-engine.
• https://blogmech.com/chassis-components-of-a-chassis-automobile-system/
• https://blogmech.com/chassis-components-of-a-chassis-automobile-system
• http://fmcet.in/AUTO/AT6502_uw.pdf
• https://www.tiretown.net/Auto-Repairs/Automotive
• http://motortownonline.com/eds-traction-control-system/
• https://www.futuremarketinsights.com/reports/automotive-human-machine-interface-hmi-technologies-market
• https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Engine_control_unit
• https://www.elprocus.com/different-types-of-sensors-used-in-automobiles/
• https://carsuffer.com/automobile-chassis-and-body-engineering/
• https://sagarpatil860.wordpress.com/2016/02/04/types-of-automobile-layout/
• https://boxaroundtheworld.com/vehicle-packaging/
• https://www.multimatic.com/engineering/product-engineering/vehicle_packaging_and_architecture/

• https://dot.ca.gov/programs/sustainability/zero-emission-vehicles/electric-vehicle-terminology
• https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digital_manufacturing
• https://tulip.co/resources/agile-manufacturing/
• https://www.startus-insights.com/innovators-guide/automotive-industry-trends-10-innovations-that-will-impact
• https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/advantages-disadvantages-lightweight-vehicles-alice-gao
• https://youtu.be/nHOyigEmlRU
• https://www.tuvsud.com/en-in/industries/mobility-and-automotive/automotive-and-oem/automotive-testing-solutions
• https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Engine_test_stand
• https://www.thermodynamicsheatengines.com/HeatEnginesVol_2_Chapter_7_RS.pdf
• https://engineering.mpt.magna.com/engineering-services/vehicle-prototyping-testing/vehicle-testing/
• http://www.lanmec.com/enPhoto_Show.asp?InfoId=344&ClassId=58&Topid=0
• https://web.iitd.ac.in/~achawla/public_html/736/7-Design_of_Vehicle_Structures_for_crash_energy_management_v6.pdf
• https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crash_test
• https://www.enertiv.com/resources/faq/what-is-energy-management
• https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/engineering/occupational-protection
• https://statestreetautorepair.com/blog/types-of-airbags
• https://www.prestogroup.com/articles/importance-of-testing-in-automotive-industries/
• https://www.euroncap.com/en/vehicle-safety/the-ratings-explained/vulnerable-road-user-vru-protection/aeb-pedestrian/

• https://autokeeda.wordpress.com/2015/03/28/various-loads-acting-on-frame
• https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prognostics
• https://www.inductiveautomation.com/resources/article/what-is-hmi
• https://www.digi.com/blog/post/what-is-connected-vehicle-technology-and-use-cases
• https://www.astm.org/industry/automotive-overview.html
• https://dieselnet.com/standards/in/
• https://www.natrip.in/index.php/2013-06-29-08-50-59/2013-06-29-09-22-47/homologation-certification
• https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/what-is-homologation/articleshow/345125.cms?from=mdr


Source: http://emptrg.kar.nic.in/7.2.Advanced%20Automobile%20Jr.Technician_Part-2.pdf

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Automotive Manufacturing Process


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Automotive Manufacturing Process



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Automotive Manufacturing Process