Farm Machine and Equipment Maintenance Worker

Farm Machine and Equipment Maintenance Worker



Farm Machine and Equipment Maintenance Worker

Farm Machine and Equipment Maintenance Worker

1) Introduction to the FLP – Farm Machine and Equipment
Maintenance Worker.
2) Occupational Health and Safety.
3) Environmental care and waste disposal.
4) Use of tools and tool care.
5) Lifting equipment and aids.
6) Measuring instruments and units.
7) Fasteners
8) Metalwork tools and equipment and their use.
9) Basic Hand Skills.
10) Gas cutting and welding.
11) Arc welding.
12) Identify farm machines and equipment.
13) Routine Maintenance.
1) Introduction to the FLP – Farm Machine and Equipment maintenance Worker.
This foundational learning program is intended to
Occupational Health and Safety.
It is a well established principle in our law that an employee has an implicit right to work in a safe working environment. Conversely, the employer has an obligation to ensure that his employees are not exposed to safety hazards. Infringements constitute criminal offences.
The legislation was at first unsophisticated and very much prescriptive. The Act (commonly known as Factories Act), was largely ineffective as the penalties for non-compliance were marginal and responsibility vested in the so-called, factory engineer. These inefficiencies resulted in promulgation of the Machinery and Occupational Safety Act No. 6 of 1983 (MOSACT) which repealed the old Factories Act.
The MOSACT initially was less prescriptive and made provision for more serious penalties. As time went by, new regulations were issued in terms of the MOSACT and this Act evolved into a very complex legislative framework. The MOSACT further made management responsible for employees’ safety and the Chief Executive Officer became the focus point of the employer’s safety program. This position was re-enforced by the 1991 amendment to the Machinery and Occupational Safety Act.
It was clear that the MOSACT was more effective than the Factories Act, but it still did not address Occupational Health issues. The Minister of Labour realised that health is as important as safety and accordingly consulted with various Trade Unions, Employer Organisations, State Departments and other relevant entities with the view to incorporating health into safety legislation. This led to the publishing of various draft bills on Occupational Health and Safety which culminated in the promulgation of the Occupational Health and Safety Act No. 85 of 1993 (OHS-Act).
The OHS-Act is regarded, generally, as very progressive and in touch with the needs of both the employer and his employees. For the first time, it is accepted that Occupational Health and Safety should be addressed by both the employer and his employees. Employees are now part of the Occupational Health and Safety management program and they are responsible for ensuring that they participate in the advancement of Occupational Health and Safety of all employees and non-employees who may be affected by their work activities.
The Act caters for constant interaction between employees and management with the view to ensuring a high standard of Occupational Health and Safety at the workplace.
The OHS-Act further makes provision for an obligation on behalf of management and employees to ensure that any other persons whose health and safety may be affected by the employer’s activities are not endangered. As you will note, the Act has extended both the employer and his employees’ duties to such an extent that they can no longer be oblivious to Occupational Health and Safety in the workplace.
Incident Unplanned, uncontrolled and undesired event caused by an unsafe act and/or unsafe condition, which results in any loss or potential loss.
Safe Free from hazard
Hazard A source of/or exposure to danger
Danger Anything which may cause injury or damage to person or property
Unsafe act Any deviation from a set working standard
Unsafe condition Any deviation from a mechanical and/or environmental set standard
Employer Any person who employs or provides work for any person and remunerates that person
Employee Any person who is employed by or works for an employer who receives or is entitled to receive any remuneration or who works under the direction or supervision of an employer or any other person
Workplace Any place where work is performed
Employment Employment or employed as an employee
First aid injury Superficial injury which was sustained that does not need medical attention by a qualified doctor or hospital and the person is able to carry on with his work after the qualified first aider attended to the injury
More than first aid Any injury that requires the attention of a medical practitioner because the person is not able to continue with his work due to the injury
• The Chief Executive Officer, is overall responsible and accountable for the health and safety of all employees under his direction
• He may delegate duties and responsibilities to other members of his staff under, and according to Section 16 of the OHS-Act
• The above people in turn may on CEO’s instruction delegate responsibilities to others under their direction, but the CEO remains accountable for the program status. This may extend to appointments in terms of Section 16 of the Act, and would be determined by the application of the term “reasonably practicable”.
What are the general duties of employers to the employees (including Health and Safety Representative)?
Every employer shall provide and maintain, as far as is reasonably practical, a working environment that is safe and without risk to the health and safety of his employees. To achieve this the employer has to do the following:
• Provide a plant, machinery and working systems that are safe and without risk to the health of employees
• Take steps to eliminate or mitigate hazards to the safety and health of employees before resorting to personal protective equipment
• Ensure what is necessary to provide for safety and absence of risk to the health of employees when using, handling, storing, etc. of articles or substances
• Determine what measures should be taken in order to protect the health and safety of persons in a workplace
• Provide information, instructions, training and supervision that may be necessary to ensure the health and safety of his employees
• Prevent any employee from performing hazardous work is the prescribed measures have not been taken
• Take measures to ensure that every person in his employ conforms to the relevant requirements of the legislation
• Enforce the measures that may be necessary in the interest of health and safety
• Ensure that those in a supervisory capacity are trained to understand the hazards of the task in hand an that they have the authority to ensure that adequate measures are taken and implemented
• Ensure that employees know and understand what is expected of them and why as well as what actions they should take while carrying out their duties and tasks (e.g. operating procedures)
Conduct the undertaking in such a manner as to ensure, as far as is reasonably practical, that all persons other than employees are not exposed to hazards to health and safety.
Elements of the abovementioned to be discussed:
• This section relates to all persons, and makes no distinctions between persons entering the premises with, or without permission, or with, or without being accompanied by an employee. The aspects pertaining to visitors, contractors, casual employees and trespassers, will be addressed at a later stage during this course
• This section is wide enough to include neighbours of the site as well as persons residing some distance away from the site, who are able to prove that the activities of the site are adversely affecting their health and safety
• The environmental legislation has assumed greater importance during the last decade in South Africa, to such an extent that the environment in itself, may be regarded as a legal person in its own right. This aspect carries considerable weight, due to the fact that should any person be able to indicate that the activities of an organisation, adversely affects the environment in any way, the organisation would have to disprove this
• It has become normal practice in industry, to require visitors and contractors to sign an indemnity clause, prior to entering the site. In terms of such indemnities, the visitor or contractor undertakes to be responsible for their own health and safety. Considering that Section 9 does not provide an option to exclude the responsibility brought about by the section, as do sections 10 and 37, the contention has been made that such indemnity clauses are contrary to the legislation and therefore, invalid. This aspect will be discussed in more detail, at a later stage.
Under the terms of current legislation, the employer (CEO) is responsible to making sure that any contractors and their employees, who are working on the premises carry out all their tasks in compliance with legislation.
Contractors must be informed of any hazards which may be in the area that they are in. They must be given training on any hazards on the site. They must also have and use all the necessary PPE and any other safety equipment to prevent exposure to themselves and/or anyone else.
It is best to have a written agreement drawn up so that both parties know what is required. All hazards have been identified and appropriate steps taken to prevent any incident.
SECTION 14 & 15
• You should take care not to harm yourself or other people around you or interfere with their safety and health
• Co-operate with your employer or other persons on the premises to ensure that all comply with their duties or legal requirements
• Carry out all health and safety related instructions given to you and obey the health and safety rules and procedures laid down for the workplace or task
• Report any hazardous situations or conditions to your Health and Safety Representative or employer
• Report any incident which may affect your health and safety to the Health and Safety Representative for your area or to the employer before the end of the shift
• The employer must allow time during working hours for the Health and Safety Representative to inspect the workplace. The employer must also provide assistance and training that may be required by the Health and Safety Representative to carry out his functions successfully
It is important that the employer view the Health and Safety Representative as an important part of the team in all efforts to create and maintain a safe workplace which is free of risk to health and safety.
Where activities could create a risk to the safety and health of employees, the employer shall keep the Health and Safety Representative for that are informed of the actions taken to prevent exposure to the hazard. He must minimize such exposure, and keep Health and Safety Representatives informed of the occupational hygiene programme, as well as any biological monitoring and medical surveillance necessary.
The employer has to inform the involved Health and Safety Representative beforehand of inspections, investigations or formal enquiries planned by inspectors. The employer also has to inform the Health and Safety Representative concerned of the occurrence of an incident/accident in his section of the workplace as soon as possible. The employer may suppose that the Health and Safety Representative is aware of this incident/accident, but it still remains his responsibility to ensure that the Health and Safety Representative is officially informed of such an accident/incident.
What are the functions of Health and Safety Representatives?
A Health and Safety Representative may perform the following functions in respect of the workplace or section of the workplace for which he has been designated, namely:
• Examine the causes of incidents and accidents at the workplace
• Carry our inspections of the workplace within scope of authority including inspections of the plant, machinery, health and safety equipment, any article or any substance at the workplace with a view to protecting the health and safety of employees
• Identify hazards and deviations that may cause incidents at the workplace
• Investigate complaints by employees relating to the employee’s health and safety at work
• Make representations to the Health and Safety Committee or the employer on matters affecting the health and safety of employees at the workplace as well as matters causing incidents and accidents
• Review the effectiveness of health and safety measures at the workplace
• Participate in consultations with inspectors at the workplace to accompany Inspectors on inspections of the workplace (Remember that Health and Safety Representatives have been informed of visits by Inspectors to the are for which they have been appointed)
• In his capacity as a Health and Safety Representative attend meetings of the Health and Safety Committee of which he is a member
• Further to the above, a Health and Safety Representative may, in respect of the workplace or section of a workplace for which he has been appointed, perform the following functions:
 Visit the site of an incident/accident and attend any inspections
 Attend any investigation of formal inquiry
 In so far as is reasonably necessary to perform his function, inspect any documents which the employer is required to keep, concerning the health and safety of employees in terms of legislation
 With the approval of the employer be accompanied by a technical advisor on any inspection
 Participate in any internal health and safety audit
We are going to have a more detailed look at two of the major functions of a Health and Safety Representative:
• Accident/incident investigation
• Inspections of the workplace or section of the workplace for which the Health and Safety Representative is designated
What is the function of a Health and Safety Committee?
A Health and Safety Committee has the task of noting the remedial action required by the employer arising out of reports received from the Health and Safety Representative. The Committee may make further recommendations to the employer regarding any health and safety hazards at the workplace. The Health and Safety Committee also has the task of noting the action taken by the employer to prevent a recurrence of accidents and incidents and may report any incident that occurred at the workplace to an Inspector. Furthermore, a Health and Safety Committee must keep a record of all recommendations made to employers or Inspectors on Health and Safety matters.
Does a Health and Safety Committee have to keep a record of proceedings?
It is legislated that the Health and Safety Committee keep the minutes of the proceedings of all meetings. These minutes should be signed by the employer indicating the steps that are to be taken to implement recommendations made by the Committee on health and safety matters at the workplace or a section of the workplace.
What procedures are followed at a Health and Safety Committee meeting?
The committee determines the procedures followed, but the steps indicated on the minutes serve as an example of procedures, which could be followed.
What is an accident?
An accident is an unplanned and undesired event, mainly caused by human error / inefficiencies and/or high risk conditions that result in or have the potential for physical harm to persons and/or damage to property and/or business interruption.
Why should accidents/incidents be investigated?
Because it is important to arrive at some definite conclusion on how to prevent similar accidents/incidents in the future. Accidents/incidents investigation is thus about fact finding and not fault finding and the ultimate objective of accident investigations is to prevent similar occurrences in future.
What is an injury?
Any damaging physical force which applied to the body which leaves the person harmed or weakened in some way.
What is occupational illness?
A state where the systems or organs (liver, lungs, etc.) of the body are affected by substances, so that they do not function in a balanced and normal way.
What is occupational disease?
A physical condition which has specific signs and symptoms caused by exposure to substances in the workplace, and which is limited to and effects a certain part of the body.
What are the basic caused of incidents?
• Personal factors
 lack of knowledge, skill or both
 physical or mental incompatibility
 improper attitude or lack of motivation
• Job factors
 unsafe physical environment
 inadequate work standards
What are unsafe acts?
Unsafe acts may motivate an action, which could result in injury, illness, disease or damage.
What are human errors / inefficiencies? (These cause 88% of all accidents)
Working at unsafe speeds
A forklift driver, in a hurry to deliver a pallet load of tin plates to the production area before lunch time, ignored the prescribed speed limit of “walking pace” when transporting a load. Whilst negotiating a right-angled turn, the load of plates slid from the pallet and skidded across the floor. The resulting scratch marks on the tin plated made them unsuitable for the intended product.
Working without authority
A machine operator at a printing works arrived early for work one morning. Without following the correct procedures he decided to clean the print rolls on one of the machines. Running the machine at high speed he commenced cleaning the rolls with a rag. The rag became between the rolls, pulling the man’s hand and arm into the machine, resulting in his arm being torn off at the shoulder.
Failure to secure machinery and material
A worker cleaning an empty mixing drum of a concrete batching plat failed to follow WSWP’s and isolate and lock-out. An operator inadvertently activated the mixing drum when commencing the next batch. The worker in the empty drum lost his life.
Rendering safety devices inoperative
A worker operating a two-hand controlled punch-press found that he could speed up the production rate by securing the one lever with a piece of string, feeding the press with his left hand whilst activating the press with the right hand lever only. Establishing a rhythm, he activated the press too soon, which did not allow sufficient time for his left hand to clear the point of operation. Four fingers were amputated.
Arranging or placing objects unsafely
To avoid the time consumed in building and breaking down stacks of bags of mealies at an animal feed mill, the bags were stacked without making use of the “bonding” method. Whilst breaking down a stack, the entire side of the stack collapsed onto several workers who suffered broken arms and legs.
Fooling, teasing, abusing workmates
A group of workers, fooling with a compressed air hose, blew compressed air into a colleague’s rectum. This resulted in the rapture of his intestines. He subsequently died.
Using equipment unsafely or limbs instead of equipment supplied
In spiting a board on a circular saw the operator suffered the loss of his thumb. Instead of using the push-stick that had been provided he pushed the board past the saw with his hand. He had been performing similar operations at an average of twenty times a day for three months during which time he sustained many minor cuts and hundreds of “close shaves”.
Adjusting or working on moving machinery
A fitter decided to adjust the tension on a portable conveyer belt whilst the belt was in motion. His arm became trapped between the belt and the head pulley. This resulted in his arm being amputated at the shoulder.
Taking chances
Instead of walking around the factory premises to enter via the authorised entrance, a worker took the chance of illegally crossing a railway line to use an unauthorised entrance. He was struck by an oncoming train and killed.
Taking up unsafe positions
A lift serviceman sat on the edge of the landing with his legs dangling into the lift well. The lift, operated by his assistant without him being aware of its descent. Both his legs were severed.
Failure to use safety equipment or to wear protective apparel
A worker, not wearing the breathing apparatus provided, entered a wine maturation vat to clean out the dregs. He was overcome by fumes and lost his life.
What are unsafe conditions? (Engineering factors)
Any variation from accepted safety standards, which may be the cause of incidents. Some examples are listed below:
What are high risk conditions? (These cause 10% of all accidents)
Any physical condition which is a departure from accepted safety standards which, if left uncorrected, may be the cause of an accident/incident resulting in damage and/or injury.
Unsafe construction
A wooden ladder with knots in the rungs was used. The rungs broke when a builder’s assistant was climbing the ladder carrying a bucket filled with bricks.
Disorder and hazard planning (inadequate planning)
A conveyer belt was installed in the centre of the work area, without giving consideration as to how workers would cross from one side of the work area to the other. A worker lost his balance, fell and broke an arm.
Lack of machine or other guards
Many production machines are not provided with suitable guarding. Serious accidents could result.
Defective working conditions, such as rough, sharp or slippery surfaces
One of the major causes of falls in hotels for instance, is that floors are not constructed to the same level. Small differences in floor levels are not readily noticed and are tripping hazards.
Inadequate guarding
Large openings in the metal used for a machine guard, allowed an operator’s finger to extend through the guard. It was amputated by a V-belt running over a pulley.
Poor factory layout with inadequate or poorly marked walkways and exists
In a workshop where walkways had not been marked out on the floor, workers stacked material and equipment in any open space they could find, thereby forcing workers to either climb over the material or brush past dangerous machines in operation. This unsafe condition was the cause of a worker passing to close to a milling machine and being struck in the eye by a piece of swarf.
Overcrowding in workshops
Too many machines in a workshop limit the free space required around machinery. These conditions often lead to accidents/incidents which result in damage and/or injuries.
No personal protective equipment
People who do not wear suitable PPE may suffer injury, illness of disease
Unsafe ventilation
In areas where volatile flammable liquids are used, ventilation should be sufficient to either remove or dilute the air/vapour mixture to avoid ignition. This will help to prevent fires and explosions.
Unsafe lighting
Lighting in passageways and on stairway needs to be of correct intensity so that protrusions and tripping hazards are illuminated adequately. This is very important in emergencies. All lighting must comply with legal standards.
Storing of hazardous substances
A woman farm worker sent her small son to fetch some mealie meal in the farmer’s barn. A bag of insecticide was stored with the mealie meal and the youngster took some of the insecticide instead of the mealie meal. Members of the family died because of poisoning.
Uniform SABS approved signs should be used. They consist of a specific shape, associated colour and a pictogram.
Information (background used with white lettering)
- Equipment start buttons
- General locations
• first aid
• exit routes
• rest areas
• emergency showers
• safety information
- Indicates electrical utilities
• electric service supply lines
• electrical switchgear and fittings
- Draws attention to dangerous moving machine parts
• inside machine guards
• parts capable of cutting, crushing or shearing shaft ends
• exposed rotating machine parts
• faces of gears
Basic background colour used with white lettering or pictograms for mandatory purposes (PPE, etc.) e.g. noise area – wear ear protection

Location of fire Fire extinguisher Fire hose
fighting equipment

Fire hydrant Fire alarm Sprinkler stop

Fire telephone Fire pump Location of
connection fire blanket

General warning Warning of Warning of
of danger fire hazard corrosion hazard

Warning of poisonous Warning of ionizing Warning of electrical
substance hazard radiation hazard shock hazard

Warning of suspended Warning of Warning of
loads hazard fragile roof workers overhead

Warning of slippery Warning of hazard of Warning of hazard
walking surface moving machinery of cold burns

Beware of forklifts Warning of hazard Warning of hazard of
of slippery stairs exposed high-voltage

Smoking prohibited Fire and open flames

Thoroughfare for Water as an
pedestrians prohibited extinguishing agent

Drinking of this Use of compressed
water prohibited air to dust body

Carrying of firearms Loose clothing, ties and
prohibited unconfined long hair

Cameras prohibited Alcohol prohibited

Eye protection Respiratory protection Hearing protection
shall be worn shall be worn shall be worn

Hand protection Foot and leg protection Foot protection against
against liquids shall be worn crushing shall be worn

Safety harness and Apron shall be worn Face protection
lifeline shall be worn shall be worn

Dust mask Keep area clean Screening to be used
shall be worn

First aid equipment General direction Direction to
escape route

Direction to Manned first aid Drinking water
escape route station

Traveling away Ladies toilets Gents toulets

Telephone Stairs going down Stairs going up

Eye wash Safety shower
For many years, in the absence of a standard colour code, many firms resorted to their own standards for colours for machinery, hazards, electrical equipment, pipe content, etc. This, at least provided a standard within an individual firm, but the time has arrived when it is highly desirable for the standardisation of colour coding throughout industry.
There is no doubt that uniformity of colour identification promotes greater safety, lessens the chance of error and warns against hazards caused by the mishandling of materials. The SABS, in conjunction with NOSA and other representatives from industry, have set out standards for colour identification. This NOSADATA has been prepared for the benefit of our members and is applicable to plant and machinery. Further NOSADATA setting colour standards for pipeline content, fire extinguishers, etc. will be issued as soon as these standards have been finalised.
The use of identification of hazardous machine parts, obstructions, pipes and services enables speedy recognition and, where intended, immediate warning of danger. Its value is obvious as a major contributing factor in the reduction of accidents and this value becomes of even greater importance where there is uniformity of colour marking among plants and organizations as it serves to eliminate confusion where workers transfer from one location or organization to another. Obvious too is its importance where the work force lacks a common language, as a standardized system has little or no need for words.
Education is an essential part of any system for giving information. On premises where colour identification is adopted, whether it be for safety, informatory or identification purposes, it is essential that a program of education be implemented. Such a program requires competent administration and should be of such a nature that no personnel are allowed to work in any area of a factory or plant until proved to be fully conversant with all relevant colour codes.
The marking of a physical hazard by a standard colour warning should never be accepted as a substitute for complete elimination of the hazard, wherever possible. It should supplement the proper guarding of machinery and other methods of eliminating hazardous conditions. Standard colour coding triggers off spontaneous action in an emergency.
All colours are based on, and should match SABS Code 1091. If improvement of conspicuity or emphasis of a specific colour is required, black or white may be used to provide contrast.
SABS 1091
Colour Colour no. Colour name


Cornflower blue
Emerald green
Light orange
Signal red
Golden yellow

Applicability of colours
Blue is a colour which should not be used on machinery. It is used as a colour code indicator on pipelines carrying drinkable water.
Restrict the use of emerald green (when relevant, in conjunction with white lettering, stripes or edging, whichever provides the most effective contrast to the surroundings) to the identifications of:
• the location of safety and first aid equipment
• emergency exits and safety areas
• informatory signs
• starting devices on electrical equipment
• miscellaneous safe conditions

Typical examples: (see also Fig. 1)
Location of safety and first aid equipment
• location of first aid facilities, including stretchers
• location of gas masks and rescue equipment
• safety deluge showers or their location
Emergency exits and safety areas
• emergency and other exits
• areas of freedom from danger, e.g. safety refuges in quarries and steelworks (preferably shown by the block form of a shelter or shed)
Informatory signs
• safety instruction signs
• information signs
• directional signs
Starting devices on electrical equipment
Starting devices on electrical equipment that is used for the control of machinery
Miscellaneous safe conditions
• entrances
• equipment stores and storage areas
• locker rooms
• offices
• Parking areas
• toilets

Restrict the use of light orange to the identification of:
• electrical switchgear
• electrical services
• exposed and rotating machine parts
Typical examples: (see also Fig. 2)
Electrical switchgear
All electrical switchgear other than starting and stopping devices and emergency stop controls
Electrical services
All conduit and allied fittings
Exposed and rotating machine parts
• the inside surfaces of chasings and guards of equipment and machinery that constitute a hazard (marked in such a way as to indicate when the casing or guard is not completely closed)
Note: the outside of such surfaces should be of a colour that provides an
effective contrast to light orange
• the surfaces or protruding shafts, faces of exposed gear-wheels and any exposed rotating part of a machine
Restrict the use of signal red (when relevant, in conjunction with white lettering, stripes or edging, whichever provides the most effective contrast to the surroundings) to the identification of:
• danger
• fire protection equipment and apparatus other than fire extinguishers. Fire extinguishers should be marked in accordance with the relevant part of this code (which will be added later)
• stopping devices on electrical equipment that are used for the control of machinery
• emergency devices for stopping machinery
Typical examples: (See also Fig. 3)
• flashing red lights at rail crossings
• danger signs
• stores for explosives and other dangerous substances
• barricades and obstructions prohibiting the passage of persons, vehicles or materials

Restrict the use of golden yellow (when relevant, in conjunction with black) to the identification of:
• objects and places where caution should be exercised
• places where radiation hazards from radio-active materials exist
• housekeeping markings
Typical examples: (See also Fig. 4)
Objects and places where caution should be exercised
• industrial locomotives and other forms of mobile equipment that may constitute a hazard
• barricades and temporary constructions that define the limits of an area in which caution should be exercised
• low head room caused by the presence of structures, pipes, etc.
• crane lifting hooks
• changes in floor level and other similar tripping hazards
• demarcation of “No Parking” areas on the floor below fire equipment and electrical switchgear panels
• locations of explosive substances
Places where radiation hazards from radio-active materials exist
• rooms and areas (outside or inside buildings) where radio-active materials are stored or handled or that have been contaminated with a radio-active material
• burial grounds and storage areas for contaminated materials and equipment
• disposal cans for contaminated materials
• contaminated equipment that is not placed in special storage
Housekeeping markings
• definition of walkways, etc.
• demarcation of clear areas

If PPE is not the first choice or ideal method, is it then of any value in employee exposure protection?
PPE is very valuable as an interim measure – i.e. where an exposure hazard has been identified, and engineering controls are not yet in place, or perhaps cannot ensure adequate protection due to circumstances beyond fixed “reasonably practicable” control.
What action is necessary when work needs to be carried out and is it not possible to engineer out personal exposure hazards?
The employer must identify the nature and extent of the problem. He then needs to obtain suitable protective equipment and ensure that it is issued to all staff after they have received education and training in its correct use, maintenance, cleaning and storage requirements.
What must employees do regarding PPE?
Every employee must use appropriate PPE correctly. Failure to do so may result in the employer being forced to take disciplinary steps. The Inspector may also decide to prosecute the employee and is he is found guilty of negligence of wilful misconduct he may be fined. Employees should be motivated to take responsibility for their own health and safety. This will be achieved through creating awareness and understanding of the principles, purpose and benefits of using all given PPE correctly at all times.
How do we know which type of equipment to use?
There is a large variety of equipment available. Once the hazard type and risk is known, someone should be appointed to be responsible for making sure that the correct equipment is in stock and used correctly.
SAPEMA (South African Protective Equipment Manufacturer’s Association) may be contacted for advice.
Who is responsible for training employees on PPE use?
The employer must see that employees receive appropriate training. Many suppliers of PPE run excellent programs on their own products. If this service is not available, training may be done by suitable in-house staff.
Does using PPE guarantee that there is no exposure to hazards?
Each type of PPE is designated with a specific purpose in mind. However, there are many factors which have an effect on its efficiency. These could include cleaning and storage practices; humidity levels, solvent exposure causing degeneration of certain materials, etc. The individual susceptibility of the person also needs to be taken into account.
Also, the way we wear PPE will have a bearing on how effective it is.
For example:
• a hard hat is worn at the back of the head instead of centred over the crown, will not offer much protection if an object falls from above
• ear plugs which are not correctly placed in the ear, will not reduce noise by the stated amount claimed by the manufacturer
• respirators must have the right cartridge for the hazard. Users must also be trained to know when the cartridge is no longer effective and how to replace it
• safety harnesses – selection of correct type
What types of protective equipment are available?
Hard hats, caps, crash helmets, hair nets
Glasses, goggles, face shields, visors and strengthened prescription lenses
Earplugs (various types) and ear muffs
Face masks, (application varies from nuisance dust to protection against certain substances. Selection is dependent on toxicity and type of substance)
- respirators, the cartridges of which must be substance specific and compatible
- air-lines which may include full air-line suits
- self contained breathing apparatus sets for fire, rescue, or work in areas indicated by TLV-STEL or TLV-C measurements (Threshold Limited Value – TLV)
Aprons, suits, jackets, overalls
Spats and leggings, aprons
Gloves, mittens and gauntlets
Boots and shoes and foot protectors
Employees should be walked along the route, assembly points should be identified, and alarms demonstrated and understood.
Should be used on an continuing basis by the supervisor and Health and Safety Representative to explain or re-enforce programme requirements. All material should be discussed and explained. Posters should be rotated regularly.
Recall and “toolbox” talks should be planned and carried out on a regular departmental basis.
The objective of this technique is:
• To help employers and employees to assess risks in the workplace. It is aimed at practical workplace risk assessment
• An assessment of risk is nothing more than a careful examination of what, in your work, could cause harm to people, so that you can weigh up whether you have taken enough precautions or should do more to prevent harm. The aim is make sure that no one gets hurt or becomes ill. Accidents and ill health can ruin lives, and affect your production too if output is lost, machinery is damaged, insurance costs increase, or you have to go to court.
• Don’t be put off by some of the words used in this guide:
i. “Hazard” means anything that can cause harm (e.g. chemicals, electricity, noise, etc.)
ii. “Risk” is the chance, great or small, that someone will be harmed by the hazard
• The important things you need to decide are whether a hazard is significant, and whether you have it covered by satisfactory precautions so that the risk is small. You need to check this when you asses the risks. For instance, electricity can kill but the risk of doing so is an office environment is remote, provided “live” components are insulated and metal casings properly earthed.
Don’t be overcomplicated in every department, the hazards are well known to supervisors but you will have to review the effectiveness of existing health and safety controls with all your workers. You may have already assessed some of them – for example, if you use toxic or dangerous chemicals, you should already have made an assessment of the risks to health and precautions you need to take under the Regulations for Hazardous Chemical Substances, 25 August 1995. If so, you can consider them “checked” and write down if you are making a written assessment. For other hazards, you probably already know whether you have machinery that could cause harm or if there is an awkward entrance of travelling way where someone could be hurt. If so, check that you have taken what reasonable precautions you can to avoid injury.
If you are confident you understand the work, you can facilitate the assessment yourself. You could ask a responsible employee, safety representative or safety officer to help you. If you are not confident, get help from a competent source. But remember – you are responsible for seeing it is adequately done.
If you are doing the assessment yourself, walk around your workplace and look afresh at what could reasonably be expected to cause harm. Ignore the trivial and concentrate only on significant hazards which could result in serious harm or affect several people. Ask your employees or their representatives what they think. They may have noticed things which are not immediately obvious. Manufacturers’ instructions or datasheets can also help you spot hazards and put risks in their true perspective. So can accidents and ill-health records.
Think about people who may not be in the workplace all the time, e.g. surveyors, visitors, contractors, maintenance personnel, etc. Include members of the public, or people you share your workplace with, if there is a chance they could be hurt by your activities.
Even after all precautions have been taken, usually some risk remains. What you have to decide for each significant hazard is whether this remaining risk is high, medium or low. First, ask yourself whether you have done all things that the law says you have got to do. For example, there are legal requirements on prevention of access to dangerous parts of machinery. Then ask yourself whether generally accepted industry standards are in place. But don’t stop there – think for yourself, because the law also says that you must do what is reasonably practicable to keep your workplace safe. Your real aim is to make all risks small by adding to your precautions if necessary.
If you find that something needs to be done, ask yourself:
(a) Can I get rid of the hazard altogether?
(b) If not, how can I control the risks so that harm is unlikely?
Only use personal protective equipment when there is nothing else that you can reasonably do.
If the work you do tends to vary a lot, or if you or your employees move from one site to another, select those hazards which you can reasonably foresee and assess the risks from them. After that, if you spot any unusual hazard when you get to a site, get information from others on site, and take what action seems necessary.
If you share a workplace, tell the other employers and self-employed people there about any risks your work could cause them, and what precautions you are taking. Also, think about the risks to your workforce from those who share your workplace.
You should record the significant findings of your assessment. This means:
(1) writing down the more significant hazards and
(2) recording your most important conclusions – for example, “Electrical cable installation: insulation and suspension checked and found sound” or “Fumes from blasting: local exhaust ventilation provided and regularly checked”. You should also inform your employees and their representatives about your findings.
There is no need to show how you did your assessment, provided you can show that:
• A proper check was made by the team
• You asked who might be affected
• You dealt with all the obvious significant hazards, taking into account the number of people who could be involved
• The precautions are reasonable and the remaining risk is low
Assessments need to be suitable and sufficient, not perfect. The real points are:
• Are the precautions reasonable, and
• Is there something to show that a proper check was made?
Keep the written document for future reference or use; it can help you if an inspector questions your precautions, or if you became involved in any action for civil liability. It can also remind you to keep an eye on particular matters. And it helps to show that you have done what the law requires. There is a form with this guide which you may find helpful but, by all means, produce your own form if it suits you better.
To make things simpler, you can refer to other documents, such as manuals, the arrangements in your health and safety policy statement, company rules, manufacturers’ instructions and your health and safety procedures. These may already list hazards and precautions. You don’t need to repeat all that, and it is up to you whether you combine all the documents, or keep them separately.
Sooner or later you will bring in new machines, substances and procedures, which could lead to new hazards. If there is any significant change, you should add to the assessment to take account from time to time. Don’t amend your assessment for every trivial change, or still more, for each new job, but if a new job introduces significant new hazards of its own, you will want to consider them in their own right and do whether you need to keep the risks down.
This is a systematic approach which enables us to identify all hazardous tasks and establish the likelihood of harm or loss arising out of or during the task. It means we can prioritise the action we need to take on an ongoing basis, until all tasks have been analyzed.
Once this analysis is completed, a second procedure is followed. This involves writing safe work procedures to be followed by anyone carrying out this job.
For companies who follow the ISO 9000 system, this means only having to review and add safety steps for all jobs which have already been analysed and documented. For other companies, who want to export to other countries, and intend going on to the ISO 9000 system, this is a major preliminary step in that direction, With or without incorporating the formal ISO 9000 system, this procedure will automatically improve quality control and maintain them on an ongoing basis – health, safety and quality are inseparable.
An added benefit of Job Safety Analysis and written safe work procedures is that it gives us a ready tool which can be used for training new staff, checking on performance, investigation incidents and deviations, and giving recognition for good performance according to set standards as trained.
It also assists the operator to refresh his memory, when carrying out tasks which are not routine or are only required at intervals which may be far apart – e.g. at shut-down.
What general precautionary measures would you take to protect employees and especially maintenance crews when working on mechanical and electrical equipment:
• Never work on any “live” or moving equipment
• All adjustments should only be undertaken by trained staff
• Any hazardous tasks should be identified and covered by a work permit or written safe work procedure
• Supervision / job observation should be on-going
• Education and training should be given appropriate to tasks
• Awareness and compliance of legislative requirements
• Purchase specifications should ensure safety is incorporated at the design / manufacture stage
• Inspect / check before commissioning
• Formal hand-over should be completed after re-design, major repairs or new installations
• Use of “pirate” parts must be checked to ensure load design capacities are appropriate and compatible
• Safety devices should be part of regular scheduled checks
• Never leave machines running while unattended
• Wear appropriate PPE
• No bypassing of safety devices
• Use correct tools and procedures
• Do not use hand to remove jammed particles
• Isolation requirements must always be followed
• All machinery and equipment should be on a preventative maintenance programme
There are two government departments which must be informed of certain incidents. There are specific forms and procedures which management must ensure are forwarded to the appropriate Regional Director: Occupational Health and Safety and the Compensation Commissioner of the Department of Labour. Someone should be appointed to ensure that this documentation is correctly completed at the Department of Labour.
The Regional Director at the Department of Labour must be told of any of the following by phone or fax, and this must be followed by the correct documentation being forwarded to him as soon as possible thereafter.
• Unconsciousness
• Any loss of a limb or part thereof
• Death or likelihood of death
• If a person is expected to be away from work, or on “light duties” for more that 14 days
• Any broken bone
• Any uncontrolled substance release
• Any machine which runs out of control
• Any parts of machinery which flies through the air
• Any major hazard or major hazard installation risk
• Any collapse of a building or structure
Does the company need to keep any other records of incidents?
Apart from copies of the above documents, the employer must carry out an investigation and keep record of findings and recommendations. The investigator should be trained in investigations. Management and the Health and Safety Representatives for the area should be involved, as well as the supervisor or manager. These reports must be discussed at the next committee meeting.
Should all incidents be investigated even if there is no loss or damage?
Incidents occur when something is wrong with the procedure, the system or the process – otherwise the incident would not have happened. Therefore, even if there is no loss or damage this should be taken as a warning.
Investigations provide very important information so that the same or s similar situation does not happen again, where the outcome could be more serious.
The purpose of internal investigations is therefore to find the basic cause of the incident. Thereafter, steps can be taken to make sure that it does not happen again.
The steps in incident investigation are:
• Train staff to carry out investigations
• Appoint an investigator if appropriate
• Inspect the scene and interview everyone involved or who witnessed it
• Make notes and sketches and check systems
• Identify the direct cause as well as the basic cause
• Check the existing steps in the procedure
• Evaluate and correct the standards
• Review all other similar situations
• Notify all necessary persons of recommendations
• Record findings and report to Health and Safety Committee
• Re-assess on a planned basis
Are statistics a valuable tool to prevent and anticipate future incidents?
Accurate records and an analysis of what type of incidents happen, at what time of the day or week, and how they happened are a most valuable source of information.
From these statistics we can identify exactly what training, education or procedures need to be changes. For example is the person new on that job; would an assistant be needed; is the pre-start check adequate, is the lighting adequate on night shift, etc.
Statistics, if correctly compiled and analysed, serve as a pro-active tool to identify areas which need attention and that should be included or provided for in the next financial year’s budget. (In critical instances immediate steps should be taken)
How can injury statistics be analyzed to pin-point problem areas?
Problem areas can be more easily pin-pointed if statistical information can be categorised to show trends or areas which need urgent or special attention.
The number of injuries to different body parts can be analyzed to show the prevalence of injuries to feet, hands, head, eyes, neck, backs, etc.
Information analyzed in this way can be presented in chart form at monthly Health and Safety Committee meetings.
Must every company employ Occupational Health Practitioners?
Management must identify the risks associated with the production process and then decide what systems and people they need to ensure that their worker’s occupational health and safety needs are catered for.
Is it a recommendation that all firms use the services of medically trained staff?
Again, this decision will need to be taken by each company according to the hazards associated with the nature of the tasks. Some points of consideration would include the following:
(a) Selection and Placement
It makes good sense for both the employee and the employer to ensure that the right person is employed for the job. One of the criteria is not to just to check on qualifications and experience, but also on physical and mental abilities to meet the demands of the job. Failure to do this, could result in the introduction of unsafe conditions.
(b) Medical Examinations
Man-job specifications and medical examinations form part of a thorough screenings process. These examinations can be done on site if facilities are available, or on a contractual basis by practitioners in private practice.
By choice, operations with high risks substances would benefit greatly by having suitable staff available on call, or on site. They should where practical, be appropriately trained in the specifics of occupational health and medicine. This training / experience should be appropriate to the risks associated with the many pertinent differences in approach to occupationally related health issues as opposed to general medicine. In the area of occupational health, the practitioner is dealing with a “well” person. The emphasis being on anticipation, identification and assessment of inherent risks – i.e. preventative medicine.
Should all premises have trained First Aiders on site?
First aid facilities must be provided. Legislation lays down the requirements. Suitable supplies specific to the risks of the particular hazards staff may be exposed to must be available. Trained staff should be available to or stationed in areas so that in an emergency they can cope with any anticipated problems until outside help can take over.
Are Occupational Hygienists part of the health team?
Their knowledge of specific chemical and other health hazards, and the means of surveying and monitoring these are integral to accurately assessing hazards and their effects on the workforce.
This is a specialized field and abilities, qualifications and expertise should be verified in relation to each organizations hazards before appointing such a person.
This is also an important health factor and someone should be appointed to look at the different areas, which can effect an employee’s well-being and productivity in the long term.
Ergonomics incorporates many areas which are best addressed in more detail than there is time for during this course. A separate course is available to cater for its many facets.
What is Ergonomics?
This field is also known as “Human Factor’s Engineering”.
Areas include:
• Ventilation, temperatures, air movement, extraction of substances
• Lighting
• Noise
• Work station design
• Instrumentation controls and design
• Muscular strains and stresses
• Manual handling
• Vibration
What is the purpose of practising ergonomics?
The implementation of a sound ergonomic program results in:
• Better utilization of worker skills
• Reduction of fatigue
• Reduction of injuries and associated claims
• Reduction of absenteeism
• Increased output
• Increased worker morale
• Increased job satisfaction
• Increased productivity
Must ergonomics be carries out by specialists?
With a little training, persons with appropriate backgrounds (e.g. engineers, or persons with a physiological background) can be trained to carry out many cost effective productive programs, for initial identification and improvements of conditions.
Thereafter, more specialized persons (e.g. design engineers and occupational hygienists) can be called in to further assist and refine programs.
Are ergonomic studies and programmes costly to implement?
In many instances they cost little or next to nothing. All that is required is a change of position, screening off glare from lights, or raising or lowering a work surface, to achieve very quick and measurable effects.
Back injuries account for the highest number of employee injuries annually.
• Employees should be taught correct techniques. They must also be aware that any back pain should be reported immediately, even if not severe, to avoid long term, or permanent damage
• Load size and shape should be assessed and the method determined to handle it appropriately – i.e. by hand or mechanically
• Work station design should be assessed and wide range lifting be engineered out of the process
• Large load, or high volume manual lifting per shift should be avoided.
• Lifting and twisting must be avoided. Lift, move feet, face drop area and lower
• Objects required to be lifted repetitively should be located in the reach area between shoulder and knee height
• Man-job specifications must be utilized for employees doing manual lifting tasks
• Appropriate PPE (e.g. gloves, hard hats) should be provided where indicated
• Pushing and pulling loads can also place excessive strain on the back, and correct techniques and equipment should be used after training has been given
• Drop and pick-up areas should be designed to accommodate unrestricted work flow without excessive handling
Why is machine guarding important?
• Injuries caused by machines, are usually severe and permanent
• Machine guarding can help prevent incidents and injuries
• Dangers can often be reduced or removed altogether by mechanical safeguards and better machine design or construction. On the other hand, safe human habits and practices are difficult to cultivate and maintain. Furthermore, mechanical improvements are usually permanent.
What are the three basic types of guards?
Fixed guards
These are usually used on transmission machinery. They do not move with each operation. They are also used on power presses and are adjusted to accommodate various different sizes of work and are fixed into place after adjustment.
Interlocking guards
This type of operation prevents the operation of the controls which set the machine in operation until the guard is moved into place. This means that operators cannot place their hands in the machine when it is in motion. These guards may be operated electronically, mechanically, pneumatically, or by a combination of all three.
Automatic guards
This type prevents the operator from coming into contact with dangerous parts of the machine while it is moving. Other automatic guards stop machines when there is danger, for example an electronic beam system which stops the machine as soon as the beam is broken by any part of the body or by an object.
What characteristics should a good guard have?
• Provide maximum positive protection
• Block access to the danger zone during operation
• Corrosion and fire resistant and easily repairable
• Hazards such as splinters and nip points should not be created by the guard
• It should be a permanent part of the machinery without weakening its structure
• Efficient operation of the machine should not be affected by the guard
• It should be strong enough to withstand normal wear and tear
• Where the guard is bulky, hinging should be considered to facilitate the servicing and repair of belts or gears, etc.
Why are treadle or stirrup guards essential for foot operated machines?
Foot treadle or stirrup guards prevent the accidental operation of punch presses and other foot-operated equipment from objects falling on the treadle or by the operator unintentionally stepping on it.
How does a phote-electric device operate?
It is an automatic stop device which makes use of light beams or light curtains. As soon as the light beam is broken it stops the machine at whatever stage of the operation is it in at the time.
Unexpected or uncontrolled operation may result in death or serious injury.
Policy and procedures should be established and training given
Principles include:
• Each appropriate individual has a copy and signs for receipt and training regarding this procedure
• All areas / tasks should be identified in writing
- Electrical energy sources
- Mechanical energy sources (e.g. steam, hydraulics, air)
- Chemical lines and piping
- Confined spaces
- Shut down procedures
- Unplanned downtime procedures
- Identify all energy sources to any one piece of equipment or plane
• One lock issued per person
• Locks should be numbered and their issue documented
• Duplicate key to be locked away in responsible person’s care. Only he may unlock in an emergency / key loss and signs for doing this
• Issue Work permits where appropriate
• Lock-out may not be substituted by tag-out
• All equipment must be able to accommodate locks
• No exchanging of locks allowed
• Gang locks to be used when more than one person is assigned to one piece of equipment, with each worker locking out individually
• Test electrical supply to zero potential before starting repairs / adjustments
• Release stores / residual energy in supply lines
• Notify affected persons / departments that line is going down
• On completion, test safe, remove locks and notify operator(s) and supervisor that energy and lines are restored
What are the basic rules for the safe use of ladders?
• Always avoid bringing metal or alloy ladders into contact with electrical supply sources
• Place the ladder so that its feet are a quarter of its length to the top support from the surface which it is resting against
• Unless the ladder is secured at the top, it should always be held in position by another person as long as someone is standing on it
• Wherever possible it should extend 1 meter of at least three rungs above its top support
• Ladders should be inspected at frequent intervals. Defects should be repaired immediately or the ladder replaced
• Keep ladders clean and do not paint them, as this hides any defects
• Do not leave ladders on wet ground or exposed to the weather
• Ladders lying on floors may cause employees to trip or fall, or they may be run over by vehicles and damaged
• Do not use ladders horizontally as walkways or scaffolds
• Tools and equipment should be hauled up by rope
• Never leave a ladder standing where it may fall over
• Never place a ladder in front of an unlocked doorway
• Ladders should be fitted with non-slip feet
• Store ladders in a cool dry place, either lying on their side, or supported on hooks against a wall, this will help to avoid warping of wooden ladders and makes it easier to check its length
• All ladders should be identified and entered on a register. Checks should be regular and any defects recorded and reported
• Only one person should be on a ladder at any one time, and both hands should be used for climbing
• Do not leave any tools on the ladder
• Use the correct ladder for the job
What are the most important safety requirements to be considered with regard to scaffold platforms and supports?
Legislation in regard to scaffolding regulations is extensive and should be referred to for detailed information. The following indicate some general principles in regard to erecting and using scaffolding.
• Scaffold must be erected, changed, broken down and stored only under the supervision of a competent person
• Inspection by a competent person must be carried out after erection and thereafter once a week, as well as after any bad weather
• Working platforms must be kept clean and all boards are to be secured and flush
• Asbestos
• Dusts
• Lead laden combustion fumes or leachate from dumps
• Carbon monoxide generated from fuel consumption
• Acid or alkali dumps into water drainage systems as well as any toxic chemicals or carcinogenic substances which may not, in themselves be toxic, but pose a threat to the ecological balance and systems (e.g. insecticides, pesticides, organic phosphates, etc,)
• Carbon products from various combustion processes, (power stations, boilers, etc.)
• Benzene, petroleum products leaching through ground soils or into water supplies (often from poorly controlled “run-off”)
• Formaldehydes (especially when they are incinerated)
• Packaging products which contain PVC’s etc. or other materials which are not biodegradable
What are the major concerns we are faced with in South Africa in regard to pollution?
Of major importance and concern is the amount of overall general waste in generated in this country where our specialised disposal and treatment facilities are minimal, and our infrastructure makes effective handling difficult and costly.
South Africa generates an average of 20kg of waste per person per day. Our geographic distance are vast and our comparatively small population cannot financially support the type of high-tech waste disposal and/or treatment operations which are viable in overseas industrialized countries.
How can industry have a positive impact on pollution control measurements?
We need to follow a systematic approach in regard to containment, reduction and disposal approaches.
• Identify the risk substances and/or processes
• Formulate an Environmental Engineering Pollution Control Policy
• Establish a programme
• Appoint a co-ordinator and provide adequate education, training and other necessary facilities as indicated by demands
• Prioritize critical issues and establish an action plan
• Educate and train:
- employees
- users
- intermediate agents (e.g. transportation agents)
- appropriate support services (Fire, Municipal, Civil Defence, Air Traffic stations, etc)
What type of issues should an APC Policy address?
• Any areas where there is a responsibility for generating or using any substances which give rise to emissions, and eliminate them or handle them at the source
• Develop products which have minimal environmental affects
• Conserve natural resources (re-design, re-cycle, re-use)
• Comply with local legislation and work towards international standards
• Share knowledge and if appropriate resources with other companies who generate like waste
• Educate employees and the community
Any person who:
• tampers with or misuses any safety equipment installed or provided to any person by an employer or used;
• fails to use any safety equipment at a workplace or in the course of his employment or in connection with the use of plant or machinery, which was provided to him by an employer or such a user;
• wilfully or recklessly does anything at a workplace or in connection with the use of plant or machinery which threatens the health or safety of any person
shall be guilty of an offence and on conviction be liable to a fine up to R50 000 or to imprisonment for up to one year or both.
Any employer who does or omits to do an act, thereby causing any person to be injured at a workplace, or, in the case of a person employed by him, to be injured at any place in the course of his employment, or any user who does or omits to do an act in connection with the use of plant or machinery, thereby causing any person to be injured, shall be guilty of an offence if that employer or user would in respect of that act or omission caused the death of the person, irrespective of whether or not the injury could have led to the death of the person, and on conviction be liable to a fine up to R100 000 or to imprisonment for up to two years, or both.
Investigates forthwith in presence of the worker and an H & S Committee member
Promptly reports circumstance to supervisor, remains in safe place
Agreement and/or resolution

Worker continues to refuse:
Worker has reasonable grounds to believe work still likely to endanger himself or another worker

Notifies plant risk control manager
Disputed equipment or workplace not to be used pending investigation and decision
Remains in safe place unless assigned to reasonable alternative work or given other directions pending investigation and decision

Investigates in presence of employee, supervisor and employee representative

Gives decision to employee and supervisor as soon as practicable



Employee Name:___________________________ Company Number:______________________________
Occupation:_______________________________ Business Unit:__________________________________
Introduction to the Occupational Health and Safety Act Know your QFC (Quality Focus Centre)
Know the duties of the Employers to the employees Know your fire equipment
Know the duties of the employees at work How to report a fire
Know your Health and Safety Representatives Environmental policy
Know the functions of the Health and Safety Representatives Clock in/out procedure
Know your Health and Safety Committee Know the danger areas (noise zones, etc.)
Know the functions of the Health and Safety Committee Know the area of smoking / fire requirements
Know the five practical steps to workplace risk assessment Understand all signs and notices
Know your written Health and Safety work procedures Know your information boards
Know the definition of an incident / accident Understand your colour coding
Understand the eleven points of unsafe practices Understand good housekeeping
Understand the eleven points of unsafe conditions How to obtain Personal Protective Equipment
Know your first aider How to use and maintain Personal Protective Equipment
How to report an incident / accident (Ref to duties of employee) Understand the offences and penalties
Compensation for injuries Understand T.Q.M. grading board
Know your fire team members Use of refuse bins
Know your fire prevention programme Understand equipment inspection
Know your emergency evacuation procedure Lock-outs and machine guarding

Department: ______________________ Date: ________________________
Task: _______________________________________________________________
Observer: ___________________________________________________________
Employee Name: _____________________________________________________
New worker Accident repeater Ergonomic factor
Risk taker Unusual job Environmental
Poor performer High risk job

21. What do the following signs signify?
_______________________ _________________________
________________________ ________________________
_________________________ ________________________
Signature: __________________________________ Date: ____/____/________
We have seen what the general duties of employers, the general duties of employees and the duties of employers towards their Health and Safety Representative are. List five general duties of employers and five general duties of employees and then discuss briefly how the health and safety standard in the workplace will improve if both parties conform to these duties laid upon them.

Environmental care and Waste disposal
Use of tools and Tool Care
Hand Tools - Pliers and Wrenches
• Use tools for their intended purpose. Don't use pliers as wrenches. Don't use wrenches as hammers.
• Wherever possible, don't expose tools to extremes of heat and cold. Metal will lose its temper and get brittle.
• Don't extend the handles of tools with sleeves or cheater bars for more leverage and power.
• Don't mistake cushion grips with insulated handles. Cushion grips are for comfort only. Insulated handles are for electrical shock protection.
• Don't hammer on the handles of wrenches or pliers to gain more force. The tool could bend, break, or fly off and hit you or someone else.
• Use pliers with enough space between the handles to keep palm and fingers from being pinched.
• Pull on pliers - don't push.
• Oil regularly. All it takes is a drop of oil on the hinge.
• Cut at right angles. Don't rock cutting edges from side to side or bend wire back and forth. That means your pliers are too small or too dull for the job.
• Don't use pliers to turn nuts and bolts. The jaws will slip and damage corners and edges of nuts and bolt heads.
• Replace damaged wrenches. Straightening a bent wrench only weakens it.
• Pull on a wrench - don't push.
• Be prepared in case the wrench slips. Make sure your footing is solid, your stance balanced and your hands clear.
• With adjustable wrenches, put pressure on the permanent jaw, not the movable jaw.
• Use the right wrench for the job. Don't use pipe wrenches on nuts or bolts. Don't use adjustable wrenches on pipe.
• On adjustable wrenches, inspect knurl, jaw and pin for wear.
Safe Work Practices
Safe work practices are ways of controlling hazards and doing jobs with a minimum of risk to people and property. To reduce risks, an organization must have a set of safe work practices. These must be developed to fit the particular company.
Management must understand and fully endorse these safe work practices, and ensure that:
• safe work practices are in writing
• all employees understand the safe work practices that apply to them
• all equipment and management support to permit compliance are available
• supervisors ensure that all safe work practices are followed
• safe work practices are reviewed annually and recorded
Use of Portable Grinders
Abrasive wheels can cause severe injury. Proper storage, use and maintenance of wheels must be observed.
• Familiarize yourself with the grinder operation before starting work.
• Ensure proper guards are in place and that safety glasses, face shields, gloves and safety boots are worn.
• Never exceed the maximum wheel speed (every wheel is marked). Check the speed marked on the wheel and compare it to the speed on the grinder.
• When mounting the wheels, check them for cracks and defects. Ensure that the mounting flanges are clean and the mounting blotters are used. Do not over-tighten the mounting nut.
• Before grinding, run newly mounted wheels at operating speed to check for vibration.
• Never use the grinder for jobs for which it is not designed, such as cutting.
Use of Bench Grinders
• Severe injury may occur if proper protective equipment is not used and properly maintained.
• Check the tool rest for the correct distance from the abrasive wheel, maximum 1/8" or 3 mm.
• Replace the grindstone when adjustment of the rest cannot provide 1/8" or 3 mm clearance.
• If the wheel has been abused and ground to an angle or grooved, reface with the appropriate surfacing tool.
• Protect your eyes with goggles or a face shield at all times when grinding.
• Each time a grinding wheel is mounted, the maximum approved speed stamped on the wheel bladder should be checked against the shaft rotation speed of the machine to ensure the safe peripheral speed is not exceeded. A grinding wheel must not be operated at speeds exceeding the manufacturer's recommendation.
• The flanges supporting the grinding wheel should be a maximum of 1/3 the diameter of the wheel, and must fit the shaft rotating speed according to the manufacturer's recommendation.
• Bench grinders are designed for peripheral grinding. Do not grind on the side of the wheel.
• Do not stand directly in front of grinding wheel when it is first started.
Use of Portable Ladders
Ladders can be used safely if they are given the respect they deserve.
Before using any ladder, make sure that it is in good condition and it is the right ladder for the job being done.
• When setting up a ladder, secure the base and "walk" the ladder up into place.
• The ladder should be set at the proper angle of one foot (1') horizontal to every four feet (4') vertical.
• Before using a ladder, make sure it is secured against movement.
• When in position, the ladder should protrude three feet above the intended landing point.
• Workers are not to work from the top two rungs of a ladder.
• Don't overreach while on a ladder. It is easier and safer to climb down and move the ladder over a few feet to a new position.
• Always face the ladder when using it. Grip it firmly and use the three-point contact method when moving up or down.
• The minimum overlap on an extension ladder should be one metre unless the manufacturer specifies the overlap.
• Keep both metal and wood ladders away from electrical sources.
Use of Step Ladders
As with all ladders, make sure that the step ladder is in good condition and the right ladder for the job.
Step ladders are to be used only on clean and even surfaces.
• No work is to be done from the top two steps of a step ladder - counting the top platform as a rung.
• When in the open position ready for use, the incline of the front step section is to be one foot horizontal for every six feet vertical.
• The step ladder is only to be used in the fully opened position with the spreader bars locked.
• Tops of step ladders are not to be used as a support for scaffolds.
• Don't overreach while on the ladder. Climb down and move the ladder over to a new position.
• Only CSA Standard ladders will be used.
Welding, Cutting and Burning
Work involving welding, cutting and burning can increase the fire and breathing hazard on any job. The following should be considered prior to the start of work:
• Always ensure that adequate ventilation is supplied since hazardous fumes can be created during welding, cutting and/or burning.
• Where other workers may also be exposed to the hazards created by welding, cutting and burning, they must be alerted to these hazards or protected from them by the use of "screens."
• Never start work without proper authorization.
• Always have firefighting or prevention equipment on hand before starting welding, cutting or burning.
• Check the work area for combustible material and possible flammable vapours before starting work.
• A welder should never work alone. A fire or spark watch should be maintained.
• Check cables and hoses to protect them from slag or sparks.
• Never weld or cut lines, drums, tanks, etc. that have been in service without making sure that all precautions have been carried out and permits obtained.
• Never enter, weld or cut in a confined space without proper gas tests and a required safety lookout.
• When working overhead, use fire resistant materials (blankets, tarps, etc.) to control or contain slag and sparks.
• Cutting and welding must not be performed where sparks and cutting slag will fall on cylinders (move all cylinders away to one side).
• Open all cylinder valves slowly. The wrench used for opening the cylinder valves should always be kept on the valve spindle when the cylinder is in use.
Use of Metal Scaffolds
There are various types of metal scaffolds and they all have a right and wrong way to be erected.
The misuse of scaffolding is the cause of numerous serious injuries. Every worker who designs or constructs a scaffold should be competent and know what the manufacturer's specifications are for the type of scaffold being used.
The scaffold type, which will be best suited for the job and capable of withstanding the loads to be imposed on it, must be determined before the job begins.
When using scaffolding, ensure that:
• The scaffold you intend to use is the correct one for the job.
• The location where the scaffold is to be constructed is level or is capable of presenting secure footing by use of mudsills or some other device.
• The scaffold will be erected by a competent worker.
• Legislative and manufacturer's requirements have been complied with.
• Safe entry and exit to both the scaffold and the general work area has been provided.
• Levelling adjustment screws have not been over-extended.
• Tower scaffolds have outriggers or are guyed and have all component parts secured in place (i.e. cross braces, pins, lateral braces).
• Scaffold work platforms have perimeter guardrails.
Horizontal rail - 0.91 metres to 1.06 metres above the work platform
Intermediate rail - horizontal rail midway between work platform and top rail
Toe board - horizontal member at work level no less than 102 mm in height above the platform level
• Scaffold planks are of number one grade materials with maximum spans of 3.1 metres on light duty and 2.3 metres on heavy duty with a maximum projection beyond the ledger of no more than 300 mm, and no less than 150 mm.
Use of Chainsaws
Chainsaws are used for many jobs in construction. Since this tool was primarily meant for use in the logging industry, it can be an unfamiliar tool to some workers.
Workers must be trained in its safe use before using a chainsaw.
This training must include a minimum of the following elements:
• The proper personal protective equipment to be worn is set out by the manufacturer, occupational health and safety legislation and The Forest Professional.
• Fuelling of the saw must be done in a well-ventilated area and not while the saw is running or hot.
• An approved safety container must be used to contain the fuel used along with a proper spout or funnel for pouring.
• The correct methods of starting, holding, carrying, storage and use of the saw must be used as directed by the manufacturer.
• Ensure that the chain brake is functioning properly and adequately stops the chain.
• The chain must be properly sharpened, have the correct tension, and be adequately lubricated.
• When carrying/transporting a chainsaw, the bar guard must be in place, the chain bar must be toward the back and the motor must be shut off.
• The chainsaw must not be used for cutting above shoulder height.
Use of Compressed Air
Air powered tools in construction range from stapling guns to jack hammers. When using any air powered tool, please follow these safety guidelines:
• Compressed air must not be used to blow debris or to clear dirt from any worker's clothes.
• Ensure that the air pressure has been turned off and the line pressure relieved before disconnecting the hose or changing tools.
• All hose connectors must be of the quick disconnect pressure release type with a "safety chain/cable."
• Wear personal protective equipment such as, eye protection and face shields. Ensure other workers in the area are made aware of, or have restricted access to the hazard area.
• Hoses must be checked on a regular basis for cuts, bulges or other damage. Ensure that defective hoses are repaired or replaced.
• A proper pressure regulator and relief device must be in the system to ensure that correct desired pressures are maintained.
• The correct air supply hoses must be used for the tool/equipment being used.
• The equipment must be properly maintained according to the manufacturer's requirements.
• Follow the manufacturer's general instructions and comply with legislated safety requirements.
Use of Hand-Held Power Circular Saws
This type of power hand tool is one of the most commonly used in construction. Because of this common use, there are numerous incidents due to thoughtless acts.
The following are the minimum accepted practices to be used with this saw:
• Approved safety equipment such as safety glasses or a face shield are to be worn.
• Where harmful vapors or dusts are created, approved breathing protection is to be used.
• The proper sharp blade designed for the work to be done must be selected and used.
• The power supply must be disconnected before making any adjustments to the saw or changing the blade.
• Before the saw is set down, be sure the retracting guard has fully returned to its down position.
• Both hands must be used to hold the saw while ripping.
• Maintenance is to be done according to the manufacturer's specifications.
• Ensure all cords are clear of the cutting area before starting to cut.
• Before cutting, check the stock for foreign objects or any other obstruction which could cause the saw to "kick back."
• When ripping, make sure the stock is held securely in place. Use a wedge to keep the stock from closing and causing the saw to bind.
Introduction 1.1 The success of an engineering job often depends on the right type of fastener or locking device used. A wrongly selected fastener or locking device could reduce the safety factor or cause damage to the equipment if it was to loosen.
1.2 For this reason many types of fasteners and locking devices are used in day to day engineering, of which a variety of threaded fasteners and washers are the most important.
2. Types of washers Fig. 1 shows some of the most common types of washers in use, and which are briefly described below.
FIG. 1
Types of washers (cont’d) 2.1 The flat washer (Fig. 1(a))
Flat washers are obtainable in all sizes and in various materials, either machined or die pressed.
It prevents damage to machined faces by the bolt or screw head and nut.
It also distributes the clamping pressure over a large area.
2.2 The tab washer (Fig. 1(b))
Tab washers are obtainable in all sizes and in various materials and because of its shape, is die pressed.
By bending the tabs as shown in Fig. 1, it locks either the nut or bolt head.
It also protects the machined face.
2.3 The spring washer (Fig. 1(c))
Spring washers are made of spring steel and tempered only after they have been split and set.
It is used as a locking device to prevent a nut or bolt from loosening under vibration.
The split ends of the spring washer tend to dig into the face of the nut and the nut landing, and will cause damage to the faces. This is unavoidable and a flat washer should never be used with a spring washer to prevent this, as it will defeat the biting action.
2.4 Tooth type lock washers (Figs. 1(d), (e), (f) and (g))
Tooth type lock washers have teeth that bite deeply into both the work surfaces and the screw head, bolt head or nut. Their design is such that they actually tend to lock tighter as vibration increases.
Continued on next page……….
Types of washers (cont’d) 2.1 The flat washer (Fig. 1(a))
Flat washers are obtainable in all sizes and in various materials, either machined or die pressed.
It prevents damage to machined faces by the bolt or screw head and nut.
It also distributes the clamping pressure over a large area.
2.2 The tab washer (Fig. 1(b))
Tab washers are obtainable in all sizes and in various materials and because of its shape, is die pressed.
By bending the tabs as shown in Fig. 1, it locks either the nut or bolt head.
It also protects the machined face.
2.3 The spring washer (Fig. 1(c))
Spring washers are made of spring steel and tempered only after they have been split and set.
It is used as a locking device to prevent a nut or bolt from loosening under vibration.
The split ends of the spring washer tend to dig into the face of the nut and the nut landing, and will cause damage to the faces. This is unavoidable and a flat washer should never be used with a spring washer to prevent this, as it will defeat the biting action.
2.4 Tooth type lock washers (Figs. 1(d), (e), (f) and (g))
Tooth type lock washers have teeth that bite deeply into both the work surfaces and the screw head, bolt head or nut. Their design is such that they actually tend to lock tighter as vibration increases.
Washers (cont’d) There are four types of tooth lock washers:
The external type washer (Fig. 1(d)) should be used wherever possible as it provides the greatest resistance to vibration.
The internal type washer (Fig. 1(e)) is normally used with small head screws and to prevent snagging of the teeth.
The internal-external type washer (Fig. 1(f)) is used where the clearance or mounting hole is oversize. The external teeth will lock on the work face and the internal teeth on the screw head or nut.
The countersunk type washer (Fig. 1(g)) is used in countersunk holes with countersunk screws.
NB: All the tooth type lock washers will damage the work faces, but flat washers should never be used with them to prevent the damage, as this will negate the locking action.
1. Name the seven types of washers described in this module. (a) ____________________________________________
(b) ____________________________________________
(c) ____________________________________________
(d) ____________________________________________
(e) ____________________________________________
(f) ____________________________________________
(g) ____________________________________________
2. State why a flat washer and a lock washer should never be used together.
Practice identifying the seven types of washers.
Ask your Training Officer to check your work and if it is correct, to sign below and then go on to the next section.
1.1 Threaded fasteners rely on the wedging action of the screw thread to achieve a clamping action.
1.2 The threaded fastener screws into a mating part and must enter into it for at least 1 to 1and a half times the diameter
1. Name the nine types of threaded fasteners described in this module.
(a)_________________________ (f) _________________________
(b) ________________________ (g) _________________________
(d) ________________________ (i) _________________________
(e) ________________________
2. Name the three types of threaded fasteners that cut their own threads.
(a) _________________________
(b) _________________________
(c) _________________________
3. Name the five types of nuts described in this module.
(a) __________________________
(c) __________________________
(d) __________________________
(e) __________________________
1. Tools
1.1 Screwdrivers
• It is important to use the correct type of screwdriver for specific screws. Select a
screwdriver with a blade point that will suit and fit the screw slot.
• Screwdriver points must be in good condition.
• The adjustable wrench, commonly known as a shifting spanner, is used only where a set spanner is not available. See Fig. 27 above.
- Adjust the jaw until the spanner fits snugly on the nut or bolt head.
- Turn the spanner to move in the direction shown by the arrow in Fig. 27 to tighten the nut or bolt.
NB: The length of a ring or a flat spanner is designed in proportion to the size bolt it has to tighten. The standard designed length is such that it will enable a man of normal strength to tighten a bolt correctly. A spanner that is too long will provide more leverage than required and could easily snap the bolt or strip the thread. This is why a spanner should never be lengthened or extended with a piece of tubing or pipe.
1.3 Torque Wrenches

Circlips and Split pins
Circlip: A metal ring fitted (sprung) into a groove on a metal bar
or in the bore of a boss to hold a component or object in
Split pin: A metal cotter pin passed through a hole and held in place
by its gaping split end.

Castellated nut A nut with slots in one end that gives it a castle-like
(castle nut): appearance.

Shim: To fit or fill up a space with a shim (a thin strip of metal).
1. Introduction 1.1 Split pins 􀀉are also known as cotter pins and are used as an additional method of locking nuts in position.
1.2 Split pins and spacer washers are also used to join parts together where there is no axial thrust.
2. Using a split pin to secure a standard hexagon nut on a bolt 2.1 Insert the bolt through the component part.
2.2 Place a flat washer of the recommended size over the bolt and onto the face of the component part.
2.3 Fit the nut and torque it to the recommended torque.
2.4 Drill a hole through the nut and bolt, using a pedestal drill. The hole must be between 0,15mm and 0,3mm larger than the split pin, which has to be fitted

2.5 Fit the split pin and bend the ends over.
NB: The bent ends must not overlap the flat on the hexagon of the nut
3. Using a split pin to secure a slotted nut on a bolt 3.1 Follow the first three steps as described in Section 2 above.
3.2 Measure the width of the slot in the nut.
3.3 Drill a hole with the same diameter as the slot at the bottom of the slot
3.4 Fit the split pin as described in Section 2.
4. Removing and replacing a split pin in a castellated 􀀉nut 4.1 Straighten the bent-over ends of the split pin, or use a hammer and chisel to cut off the bent-over ends of the split pin flush with the side of the nut.
4.2 Tap the split pin out with a hammer and a pin punch.
NB: The pin punch must be slightly smaller than the split pin hole.
4.3 Remove the nut and examine the threads of the bolt and the nut.
4.4 Fix up the threads with a die nut or tap if necessary.
4.5 Refit the nut and torque it to line up the slot with the hole in the bolt.
4.6 Fit the split pin as described in Section 2 above
Removing and replacing a split pin in a castellated nut (cont’d) Note: When working on old assemblies it is possible that more than one hole has been drilled in the bolt or shaft. When this is the case, it should be possible to line up the slots in the nut with one of the holes and still be within the specified limits of the torque. If, however, the torque limit has to be exceeded to line up the slots in the nut with a hole in the bolt, it may be necessary to either shim 􀀉or face the nut.
5. Retaining a pin or spindle with split pins and washers NB: This method may only be used where there is no axial thrust.
5.1 Measure the overall width of the component that the pin or spindle has to fit through.
5.2 Add the thickness of the two flat washers plus half the diameter of the two split pins, plus between 0,5mm and 1mm for endplay, to the width of the component.
5.3 Mark off the pin and centre pop it.
5.4 Drill the holes and assemble the parts.
5.4 Fit the split pins and bend the ends over
Metalwork Tools and Equipment:
Basic Hand Skills:
Use a pedestal drill
Eye injuries due to flying particles.
Injury due to rotating chuck.
If work piece rotates, it can cause injury.
Burrs and swarf can cause hand injuries.

Use appropriate safety goggles.
Always allow chuck to stop before changing drills or making adjustments. Do not stop chuck by hand. Allow it to stop of own accord.
No loose clothing or loose long hair when operating machine.
Securely clamp work piece in place.
Remove burrs from drilled holes, using the correct tools.
Clean away swarf with a brush. Do not use unprotected hands.
Introduction 1.1 To plan any drilling job you need to know the following:
The shape and size of the job.
The type of material to use.
The type of drilling to be done.
1.2 All of the above information can be obtained from studying the drawing. After obtaining all the information you must do the following:
Select the right type and size of material.
Determine the method of clamping the material on the drilling machine table.
Refer to Module MDM if necessary.
Select all the drills you will require to do the drilling.
Select the marking off and measuring tools you will need to mark off the workpiece, i.e. marking blue, scriber, dividers, vernier callipers, etc.
2. Example of a drawing Refer to the drawing of a flange shown in Self Test 1 on the next page and note the following in respect of Flange A:
Diameter of flange = 132mm
Bore of flange = 35mm
Thickness of material = 10mm
Type of material = mild steel plate
PCD of flange holes = 105mm
Number of holes in flange = 4
Hole size = 10mm
PRACTICE Mark off and drill a flange as specified on the drawing provided to you by your examiner.
Remember that the sizes measured from the apex of the holes to the outside of the flange may not differ by more than 0,25mm and that the diameters of the holes may not be more than 0,2mm bigger than the drill diameter.
Ask your Training Officer to check your work and if it is correct, to sign below.
You have now completed Module MDF.
If you feel ready, ask for the assessment for the module.
Cut Thread with Stocks and Dies
1. Use hand tools
1. Cut threads with stock and dies
Using damaged tools or wrong tools for the job can cause injury and damage to equipment.
Burrs and swarf can cause hand injuries.
Cutting compound and fluids may be toxic and could be harmful to the skin.

Always use the correct tool for the job.
Ensure tools are in good condition.
Use tools correctly.
Wear appropriate PPE where necessary.
Always take good care of tools. Maintain, clean and store it properly.
Clean away swarf with a brush. Do not use unprotected hands.
Wash your hands with soap and water after use.
Introduction 1.1 The term “die”, as used in this module, is a device for cutting external threads on to a round bar.
1.2 There are various types of dies for cutting external threads. The dies selected for this module are the adjustable type, namely:
The adjustable round die, and
The two part adjustable die.
1.3 Dies come in full sets and have their sizes engraved on them.
1.4 Dies are fitted into a stock (handle) to form a tool for cutting external threads.
2. Fit and adjust an adjustable round die 2.1 Select the required die. The size of the die is engraved on the face on the same side as the lead (chamfer in the die block).
1. Introduction to cutting thread
1.1 The outside diameter of the material must be the same diameter as the thread to be cut.
1.2 Measure the outside diameter of the round bar, if it is not known, and select the appropriate dies.
1.3 Clamp the work piece firmly and vertically in the vice. Protect the work piece from damage by using a vice with soft jaws or copper shims.
1.4 Adjust the dies to cut the thread for about half the full depth of the thread.
1.5 Enter the dies onto the material by applying moderate pressure on the dies and at the same time turn the stock in a clockwise direction.
1.6 Use a cutting fluid whilst cutting.
Welding (Gas and Arc)
Acetylene: Colorless hydrocarbon gas, C2H2, burning with bright flame, used especially in lighting and welding.
Pressure regulator: Device to regulate pressure in gas cylinders, and adapt it to requirements.
Backfire: Flashback, which may occur in the torch of oxy-acetylene, welding equipment under faulty application.
Regulate: To allow even flow.
Weld: To join together by heat or by fusion with electric arc.
Electrode: Rod covered in flux, used for welding.
Clamp: Brace, clasp, or band, usually of iron, for strengthening other materials or holding things together.
Strike an arc: To complete the electrical circuit through the work piece during arc welding.
Inspect and maintain oxy- acetylene equipment
Handling and transport of oxy-acetylene equipment
Inspect and maintain arc welding equipment
Use oxy-acetylene and arc welding equipment

Burn injuries from ignition of gas leaking from regulators, damaged hoses and torch attachments.
Possible serious injury and death if flash back causes gas bottles to explode.
Equipment damage due to wrong handling procedures.
Danger of electric shock from damaged cables and equipment.
Danger of eye injuries and burns from hot material.
Fire hazard from ignition of combustible material.

Ensure regulators and attachments are properly secured and leak proof.
Check hoses for damage and replace if necessary (do not repair).
Ensure flash back arresters are installed.
Remove regulators and other fittings that can be damaged.
Do not drag or roll bottles.
Use appropriate trolleys for transporting gas bottles.
Inspect power supply and welding cables, electrode and earth clamp for damage and replace if necessary.
Use appropriate PPE, e.g. correct type welding helmets for arc welding, protective tinted goggles for gas cutting, leather aprons, leggings, gloves, safety shoes, etc..
Do not wear nylon or other easily inflammable clothing.
Do not weld or cut near combustible material or near transformers or switch gear.
Ensure that adequate and appropriate firefighting equipment are available at the work site.
Use oxy-acetylene and arc welding equipment (cont’d)
Possible inhalation of noxious fumes and gases resulting from cutting and welding.

Always cut and weld in well ventilated areas.
Wear appropriate gas masks when necessary.
1. Introduction to oxy- acetylene welding For all the different gas welding procedures described in this module:
The regulator pressure for both oxygen and acetylene must be set at 13,8 kPa.
A size 2 nozzle must be used.
A 1,6mm diameter filler rod (BS1453/A1) must be used.
Note: The correct methods of using oxy- acetylene equipment were explained in Module OA-1. If you are uncertain about these methods, you should read that module again.
2. Prepare to weld 2.1 The nozzle
The number stamped on the shank of the nozzle changes with the diameter of the holes in the nozzle (Fig. 2 on the next page). A bigger number means a larger hole.

NB: Before you do the practice, read the safety precautions in Module OA-1 and the contents of the HIAC FORM at the beginning of this module and strictly adhere to them.
Select a nozzle to weld a 1,6mm plate, light the torch and practice producing the three types of flames shown in Fig. 5.
Ask your Training Officer to check your work and if it is correct, to sign below and then go on to the next section.
1. General information
1.1 In electric arc welding the source of heat to melt the metal comes from an electric arc with a high current flow (amperes) at a low to moderate voltage between the work piece and the electrode. In effect it is a tiny, local electric furnace at the end of the electrode
The electric circuit is provided by equipment arranged as shown below.
2.1 Welder
• The welding current is provided by a power source called a welder.
• The most common type of welder is a transformer, which converts the normal input to a high amperage output current at a much lower voltage.
• The output is adjustable over a wide range to suit different jobs.
• The various control levers are shown in
2.3 Electrode
• The current then flows through the holder to the electrode, which is gripped in the holder.
• The electrode consists of a core wire. It has a flux coating of mineral and alloy materials.
• Between 25 mm and 40 mm of the wire is left bare to provide a good electrical contact with the electrode holder.
• The gases from the flux protect the weld pool from contamination by the atmosphere.
• The melted flux coating produces slag, which helps to shape the weld bead (Fig. 20).
• It is important to always select the right electrode for the material and position of the job.
a) Use Tables 1 and 2 to select the appropriate size of electrode and the current range for welding the following plates:
(i) 4 mm thickness
(ii) 6 mm thickness
(iii) 9 mm thickness
b) By manipulating the levers of the welding machine, select the above ampere ranges on the machine.
Ask your training officer to inspect and sign off on your task.
3 Precautions when welding
NB: The precautions necessary are simple but essential if the welding is to be done safely and effectively.
3.2 All insulated components must be in good condition and a proper earth must be used.
3.3 An electrode holder of adequate amperage rating must always be used for the work to be done.
3.4 Protect your eyes from intense visible light and ultra-violet and infrared emissions of the arc by always using a hand or head screen.
• A head screen may be used if you need both hands free.
• The glass filters out the rays and reduces the light to a comfortable working level.
Precautions when welding (cont’d)
• There is a variety of suitably tinted glasses available which gives the correct protection while still allowing the work to be seen.
• The screen also protects the face and throat from artificial sunburn, sparks and heat from the work.
USE oxy-acetylene welding or cutting goggles when using arc-welding equipment.
3.5 A variety of protective clothing is available. You must choose the outfit most suitable for each job.
6. Safety thoughts
6.1 Leads and cables should be kept clear of passageways.
6.2 Keep fire extinguishing equipment handy when welding.
6.3 Repair or replace defective cables immediately.
6.4 Never strike an arc on any gas cylinder as it may explode.
6.5 Never watch the arc except through lenses of the correct shade.
6.6 Never use oxygen for venting containers.
6.7 Keep primary terminals and live parts effectively covered.
6.8 In confined spaces, adequate ventilation and constant observation are essential. It is dangerous to use oxy-acetylene and arc welding equipment in working places that are poorly ventilated.
• Injury to persons.
• Fire may cause injury to persons, loss of life and damage to equipment.
• May cause electric shock.
• May cause temporary loss of eye function. • An explosion may cause injury to persons.
• It may cause electric shock.
• A shortage of oxygen may cause suffocation.
Safety thoughts
6.9 It is extremely dangerous to cut or weld cadmium and zinc plated (galvanised) components where there is inadequate ventilation because toxic vapors’ are produced. Because it is difficult to identify these materials, extra care must be taken.
Tension and Alignments of belts and Pulleys
V-belt: A band of material in a wedge or V-shape, which fits over pulleys of the same shape and is used to transfer power in machines
Align: To bring in to line, or to put in a straight line.
Tension: The degree of tightness in a V-belt.
Tensioning force: The specified force (in Newton (N) or kilogram-force (Kgf)
Required to deflect a V-belt 16mm for every 1m span, and
Is used to measure if the belt is correctly tensioned.
Idler (or guide an intermediate pulley that runs free (i.e. it is not driven), pulley): used to take up slack in a V-belt.
Slip: The reduction in the movement of a pulley due to slipping of
the belt.
1. Work on machinery
2. Use hand tools
Injury to person if working on moving machinery.
Using damaged tools or wrong tools for the job can cause injury and damage to equipment.

Ensure that power to the machine is switched off, and if possible, physically locked out. Place a warning sign stating: “Men at work. Do not switch on” in a prominent position.
Ensure that machinery is stationary before commencing work.
Replace machine guards after completing the task an before starting the machine.
Always use the correct tool for the job.
Ensure tools are in good condition.
Use tools correctly.
Wear appropriate PPE where necessary.
Always take good care of tools. Maintain, clean and store it properly.
1. Introduction
1.1 V-belt 􀀉drives are used on many machines on mines, e.g. pumps, crusher motors, etc.
1.2 They are not as efficient as direct drives, because there is a loss of efficiency between the belts and the pulleys due to friction and slip 􀀉.
1.3 Because they are used so much they need checking as part of routine maintenance work. Any faulty parts must be corrected or replaced.
2. Types of V-belts
There are five standard sizes.
(i) 13mm x 8mm called an “A” section.
(ii) 17mm x 11mm called a “B” section.
(iii) 22mm x 14mm called a “C” section.
(iv) 32mm x 19mm called a “D” section.
(v) 38mm x 23mm called an “E” section.
Types of V-belts (cont’d) 2.2 The wedge type V-belt (see display board)
The wedge type V-belt is also made of rubber and fabrics.
About two thirds of the distance from the bottom of the belt there are polyester load carrying cords. These cords make it possible to transmit more power with a smaller belt.
The belt can be identified by its convex form at the top and bottom.
The size of a wedge type belt is given by its breadth only.
Belts are made with the sides inclined to each other at an angle of 40° (Refer back to Fig. 1). The angle of the grooves in the pulleys generally varies slightly with the diameter of the pulley. Smaller pulleys lie at an angle slightly less than 40° to allow for the belt to bulge because of increased bending.
There are five basic sizes:
(i) 10N called a section “SPZ”
(ii) 13N called a section “SPA”
(iii) 16N called a section “SPB”
(iv) 22N called a section “SPC”
(v) 25N called a section “DELTA”
The first number, e.g. 13N, indicates the width of the belt, which will be 13mm in this example.
Measure the length of a
V-belt (cont’d) 4.3 Assume a belt has to be fitted between a motor and a jackshaft and you need to measure the length of belt required.
Proceed as follows :
Move the motor as close as possible to the driven pulley. The driven pulley is the pulley that is mounted on a jackshaft.
Wrap the measuring tape around the two pulleys, on the same path as the V-belt, and at the bottom of the grooves and take the measurement.
Because the distance measured is at the bottom of the grooves, select a belt one size larger than the measurement taken.
N.B. This is necessary because the neutral axis of the belt must line up with the pitch circle diameter (PCD) of the pulley grooves i.e. the belt required is larger than the distance measured for it (Fig. 4).
5. V-belt markings
Belt sizes and lengths are usually stamped on the belt in paint.
In the imperial system, only the size and length are stamped on the belt, e.g. A45 means it is an “A” section belt and that it is 45 inches long.
In the metric system for standard type belts, the width, depth and length are stamped on the belts, e.g. 13 x 8 x 870 means that the belt is 13mm wide, 8mm deep and 870mm long. It is an “A” section belt because the width and depth is given.
In the metric system for wedge type belts, the number and length are stamped on the belt, e.g. 16N SPB 3550 means that it is 16mm wide and 3550mm long.
Measure the V-belt lengths and sizes on the display board with a vernier calliper and a tape. Compare your sizes with those given on the V-belt chart. Use the chart to determine the number of the belt and then compare your answers with those stamped on the V-belt, or check them with a V-belt gauge.
Ask your Training Officer to check your work and if it is correct, to sign below and then go on to the next section.
6. Matching V-belts
6.1 V-belts are mass-produced and there is always a slight difference in their lengths. This difference is quite critical and cannot be ignored, the reason being that if belts of different lengths are fitted to a multiple belt drive the shortest belt will take the most load.
6.2 To overcome this difference, “matched sets” of belts must be used.
6.3 The variation in length of the belt from its nominal length (i.e. the length it should be) is either stamped on the belt or on a cellulose tape attached to the belt. A code system is used to indicate the variation.
• A code number of 50 indicates that the actual belt pitch length is equal to the nominal length.
6.4 Consider a wedge type belt, type 16N SPD 3550 i.e. the nominal length is 3550mm.
• A belt with a length exactly the same as the nominal length, i.e. 3550mm will have a code number of 50 stamped on it. • A belt 2mm longer than the nominal length, which in this case will be 3550 + 2mm = 3552mm, will have a code number of 51 stamped on it.
• A belt 2mm shorter than the nominal length, which in this case will be 3550mm - 2mm = 3548mm, will have a code number of 49 stamped on it.
6.4 When selecting matched sets of belts care should be taken to ensure that they fall within the maximum variation limits contained in the V-belt chart on the next page. See second column.
Example: In the case of the belt of length 3550mm, used in Par. 6.3 above, the maximum variation in belt length allowed (see chart below) is 6mm, i.e. 3 x 2mm. A matched belt set in this range must therefore consist of belts that have three consecutive code numbers, e.g. 48, 49, 50 or 49, 50, 51 etc.
Cut and fit Gasket.
1. Introduction 1.1 A gasket is a compressible piece of material, e.g. paper, asbestos, cork, rubber etc., which is sandwiched between the faces of a joint to form a seal.
1.2 All the types of seals, packing and gasket materials and methods of sealing and jointing dealt with in this module are used in the mining industry.
1.3 The name of products vary from manufacturer to manufacturer, although purpose, function and physical appearance of the product might be the same. For this reason, commonly used or descriptive names will be used as much as possible.
2. Types of non-metallic gaskets 2.1 Rubber gasket material
Rubber gaskets are suited mostly for sealing off water or air connections. They are not recommended for use with oil or where extreme heat is present. Oil and heat will affect rubber and make it soft and cause gasket failure. It can even result in blowouts.
There are basically three types of rubber gasket material:
Round rubber from 3mm to 12mm in diameter, which is available in rolls up to 50 metres in length.
Round rubber can be cut into lengths and joined with an adhesive to form rings of any size. Some adhesives available are so strong that the rubber will snap rather than the joined part when under tension.
Gaskets made up out of round rubber are mostly used to seal off pump casing sections (cells) and other pump parts. Fig. 1 and Table 1 on the next page show the relationship of the chamfer (M) and the radius (R) to the cross section of the rubber ring when applied to pumps.
• Grey rubber insertion is made out of cloth- reinforced laminated flat rubber, which is 1,5mm, 3mm and 5mm thick and available in 1 to 1½ metre wide rolls.
Grey rubber insertion is ideal for making either gaskets or full face flange gaskets, which are used between the flange faces of low pressure pipe lines.
Fig. 2 shows a ring gasket, which fits inside the bolt circle on the flange and a full face gasket which covers the flange face on both the inside and outside of the bolt circle.
1. Name four types of material used for gaskets.
(a) _____________________________________________________________
(b) _____________________________________________________________
(c) _____________________________________________________________
(d) _____________________________________________________________
2. What is a gasket?
Name three types of rubber gasket material and where they are used.
(a) _____________________________________________________________
(b) _____________________________________________________________
(c) _____________________________________________________________

Types of non-metallic gaskets
2.2 Paper gasket material is normally a heavy strong paper,which resembles "vellum" and is commonly known as "Vellumoid". It is supplied in 1 and 1,5 metre wide rolls and ranges in thickness between 0,3mm and 0,6mm.
It has a very low percentage of compressibility and is suitable for most applications, especially where oil or petrol is to be sealed off.
It is not recommended for high pressures, for gaskets in pipe lines, or where extreme heat is present.
2.3 Cork gasket material is basically cork chips moulded into flat sheets. It is supplied in rolls or in sheet form in widths up to 1,5 metres wide.
Three of the most common types of cork packing are :
- Cork-rubber composition
- Cork-asbestos composition
- Plain cork.
- Cork packing is widely used in motor car engines where oil has to be sealed off, e.g. tappet covers and sumps.
2.4 Compressed asbestos fibre gasket material, of which “Klingerit" is the most commonly used in the mining industry, is available in standard size sheets of 1500mm x 2000mm and from 0,25mm to 6mm thick. Gaskets of any shape or size can be cut depending on the sheet size.
Fit Seals and Packings
1. Introduction To cater for all the different conditions that exist in the mining industry, a full range of synthetic rubber materials is used in the manufacture of "O" rings and oil seals.
The following factors will influence the type of "O" ring and oil seal chosen:
The nature of application.
The type of fluid or gas to be sealed.
The minimum, maximum working pressures.
The type of lubricant used.
The minimum, maximum working temperatures.
The speed of the shaft or frequency of reciprocation and stroke.
The size and finish of the matching component parts.
2. “O” rings 2.1 "O" Rings are made of a synthetic material which is commonly known as "Neoprene".
2.2 They range in size from a cross section diameter of 1mm and an internal diameter of 3mm to a cross section diameter of 8mm and more and an internal diameter of 500mm.
2.3 A typical set of manufacturers’ tolerances on
"O" rings are shown in Table 1 on the next page.
2.4 “O” rings are identified by reference numbers which reflect various prefixes and the internal diameter and width (cross section diameter) of the ring. For example, a ring with reference number RMT 20 X 2 indicates a ring with inside diameter of 20mm and a width of 2mm.
2.5 O" rings can be used for either static (stationary) sealing or dynamic (motion) sealing.

DESCRIPTION 1. Introduction
1.2 The basic design of oil seals is the same although there are many different types for different applications.

DESCRIPTION 1. Introduction
1.2 The basic design of oil seals is the same although there are many different types for different applications.
(a) This is a split type of oil seal and is made of synthetic rubber.
(b) This is a conventional oil seal and is made of synthetic rubber reinforced with metal.
(c) This is a double lipped oil seal and is made of synthetic rubber reinforced with metal.
(d) This is a metal encased synthetic rubber seal with the spring cradled on a thin metal strip, which reinforces the lip of the oil seal. This seal is especially suitable for heavy duty work.
Lubrication System
1. Introduction
No engine can operate without proper lubrication.
Irreparable damage to the engine can result through lack of lubrication and through using oil, which is contaminated with abrasive material.
Proper maintenance of the lubrication system and the use of correct and clean lubricant is, therefore, of the utmost importance.
Components of the lubrication system 2.1 The oil pump
The oil pump delivers oil under pressure to all the moving parts of the engine.

2.4 The oil filter.
Oil filters remove the harmful abrasive particles, which may have entered the oil system of a machine or engine.
There are basically two types of oil filters in use today, namely:
the replaceable cartridge type, and
the throw away "spin-on" canister type.
The construction of the filtering element or cartridge in both of these types of oil filters is the same as the cartridge in the dry type air cleaner. The only difference is that the filtering material is treated so that it can be used with oil.
NB: It is not recommended that these filters be reused, even if washed.
2. The possible causes of low oil pressure
Incorrect grade of lubricating oil (i.e. too thin).
Worn or damaged engine bearings.
Insufficient oil in the sump.
Inaccurate gauge readings.
Oil pump worn.
Pressure relief valve sticking in the open position.
Broken relief valve spring.
Choked oil filter.
Blocked sump strainer.
Change the oil Filter
Stop and isolate the engine.
Drain all the oil from the sump.
Clean the outside surrounding area of the filter.
Remove the centre bolt.
Remove the filter from its seat.
Remove the cartridge from the housing and throw it away.
Wash the filter housing and the centre bolt in a detergent or solvent.
Rinse the parts in clean water.
Wipe the parts with a clean dry linen cloth. Never use waste.
Remove the gasket from the mounting face.
Wipe all the old oil off the mounting face.
Wipe the gasket with clean oil and install it in the groove on the mounting face.

Place the new cartridge correctly into the filter housing. Make sure the coil spring is in place and that the cartridge faces the correct direction.
Place the complete assembly onto the mounting face. Make sure the filter housing is seated properly on the gasket.
Tighten the centre bolt.
Replace the sump drain plug and refill the engine with the recommended clean oil to the indicated level mark.
Start the engine and run it for about two minutes.
Check for oil leaks at the oil filter and at the sump plug.
Retighten the bolts if necessary.
Stop the engine and wait for about two minutes.
Check the oil level and, if necessary, top up to within ±2mm of the indicated level mark with the recommended new oil.
Clean up any spilt oil.
Refer to the workshop manual.
Cooling System
1. Purpose of a cooling system on a diesel engine
The temperature in a cylinder, when combustion takes place, is approximately 2000 C°, i.e. similar to the temperature in a furnace.
Clearly if the metal of the cylinders were heated to this high temperature it would become red hot and severe damage could result.
Lubrication would be impossible under these circumstances and even the valves and valve springs would lose their hardness.
In order to avoid this happening, sufficient heat has to be removed to lower and control the temperature of the engine.
This excess heat is removed by an engine cooling system, the essential components
2. Parts of the cooling system of a diesel engine 2.1 Water Jackets
The water jackets consist of an outer wall around the cylinders. Between the cylinders and the wall is a space through which the water runs. The water jackets enable the water to circulate around the cylinders, valve seats, valve guides and the cylinder head
Parts of the cooling system of a diesel engine 2.6 The radiator cap
The cooling system is subjected to a certain pressure to increase the boiling temperature of the water. Water at the atmospheric pressure (sea level) boils at 100°C. When a pressure of 90 kPa is maintained in the cooling system the boiling temperature is increased to 122°C. This provides a considerable safety margin.
The cap acts as a relief valve and so maintains the pressure. As soon as the pressure in the cooling system overcomes the pressure of the spring in the radiator cap, the valve is lifted off its seat and releases the excess pressure through the overflow pipe
3. Fault finding on a cooling system The following possible faults may cause overheating in the cooling system of a diesel engine:
The fan blades are damaged so that they can not draw sufficient air through the radiator.
The fan is installed the wrong way around. Instead of drawing cool air through the radiator, it blows hot air from the engine, through the radiator.
The thermostat sticks in the closed position.
There is a restriction in the water jackets.
The fan belt is too loose and slips on the pulley. This results in the pump not being able to circulate sufficient water.
The tubes in the radiator are blocked which results in insufficient cooling.
The water pump is damaged.
The coolant level is too low.
1. What is the function of the following components:
(a) The radiator?
(b) The fan?
(c) The water pump?
(d) The thermostat?
2. What are the eight faults that can cause overheating in the cooling system?
(a) _____________________________________________________________
(b) _____________________________________________________________
(c) _____________________________________________________________
(d) _____________________________________________________________
(e) _____________________________________________________________
(f) _____________________________________________________________
(g) _____________________________________________________________
(h) _____________________________________________________________
Diesel Engin.
1. Introduction
The Cylinder (a) in its simplest form is a tube of circular cross-section, closed at one end.
The Piston (b) fits closely inside the cylinder. Ideally it would be perfectly gas-tight yet perfectly free to move up and down inside the cylinder.
The Connecting Rod (c) connects the piston to the crankshaft. At the piston end is a pin called the gudgeon pin that is fitted into holes in the piston and the connecting rod to couple them together.
The Crankshaft (d) is the main shaft of the engine and is carried on bearings in the crankcase. The crank pin is offset from the main part of the shaft, and on it is fitted the connecting rod, which is free to turn.
3. Working principles
The rotation of the crankshaft causes the piston to move up and down inside the cylinder.
Servicing a Engine.

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