As defined in the Victorian Curriculum History, the Ancient period covers history from the development of early human communities (from 60 000 BCE) to the end of late antiquity (around 650 CE).
ANZAC Day is a national remembrance in Australia for the troops who fought at Gallipoli in Turkey (April to December 1915) during World War I, and to Australians who have fought in subsequent conflicts. The word ANZAC refers to the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZAC).
Something made or shaped by humans for their use, such as a stone tool, a metal sword, a plastic toy.
As defined in the Victorian Curriculum: History, ‘Asia’ refers to the territorial area that extends from the western border of Pakistan, to the northern border of Mongolia, the eastern border of Japan, and that extends to the southern border of Indonesia.
An abbreviation of ‘Before the Common Era’. It is the same dating system as the traditionally used BC, meaning ‘Before Christ’. Historical dates before the birth of Christ are classified as BCE. There is no year zero in this dating system, so the year CE 1 immediately follows the year 1 BCE. See the glossary term for CE.
BP is placed after a number to indicate years before the present. For example 3000 BP is 3000 years before the present date. Archaeologists use this dating system for radiocarbon dating.
Cause and effect
Used by historians to identify chains of events and developments over time, short term triggers and long term trends.
An abbreviation of `Common Era’. It is the same dating system as the traditionally used AD, short for the Latin phrase Anno Domini, ‘the year of our Lord’. Historical dates after the birth of Christ are classified as CE. There is no year zero in this dating system, so the year CE 1 immediately follows the year 1 BCE. See the glossary term for BCE.
Chronology is the study of time. In history, chronology involves the sequencing of events in order, as in a timeline so that patterns of change and causation can be observed and identified.
A concept refers to any general notion or idea that is used to develop an understanding of the past, such as concepts related to the process of historical thinking (for example sources of evidence (perspectives and interpretations), continuity and change, cause and effect, significance) and knowledge concepts that organise historical periods such as Medieval period or World War One, knowledge concepts specific to historical contexts such as the Port Phillip District or Fascism or Knowledge concepts that are culturally significant to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, such as Country and Place.
Occurs when particular interpretations about the past are open to debate, for example, as a result of a lack of evidence or different perspectives.
Continuity and change
Aspects of the past that have changed and those that remained the same over certain periods of time are referred to as continuities. Observing and identifying patterns of change and/or continuities is a method of organising the complexity of the past. Continuity and change are evident in any given period of time and concepts such as progress and decline may be used to evaluate continuity and change.
The study of the characteristics of human populations, such as size, age profile and life expectancy.
Data generated in a computer, that is digital audio, digital video, the World Wide Web and other technologies.
An empire exercises political, economic and cultural rule or control over other peoples and nations, such as the Roman Empire and the British Empire.
In History, evidence is the information obtained from sources that is valuable for a particular inquiry (for example the relative size of historical figures in an ancient painting may provide clues for an inquiry into the social structure of the society). Evidence can be gathered from primary and secondary sources. Evidence can be used to help construct a historical narrative, to support a hypothesis or to prove or disprove a conclusion.
Is a national week, held in Australia, that celebrates Australia’s cultural diversity and promotes intercultural understanding and peace.
Historical inquiry is the process of investigation undertaken in order to understand the past. Steps in the inquiry process include posing questions, locating and analysing sources and using evidence from sources to develop an informed explanation and argument about the past.
A historic site or heritage site is an official location that is considered significant where artefacts of political, military, cultural, or social history have been preserved due to their cultural heritage value and/or where a significant event occurred.
Imperialism is the process whereby rule or control is established and maintained over other peoples and nations.
The introduction of machinery to produce large quantities of goods using fuel-based technology. Industrialisation involves a division of labour and the development of factories and cities.
An interpretation is an explanation of the past, for example about a specific person, event or development. There may be more than one interpretation of a particular aspect of the past because historians may have used different sources, asked different questions and held different points of view about the topic.
A term used to describe the period of history between the end of the Roman Empire in the west in the fifth century CE to the end of the Renaissance around 1500 CE.
As defined in the Australian Curriculum: History, the ‘modern’ period covers history from the beginning of the Industrial Revolution around 1750 CE to the present.
A way of making sense of the past based on a selection of events. There are different types of narrative such as accounts of the past that relate a story (for example personal, fictitious) and historical recounts (such as the course of events during the Second World War).
Nationalism is the feeling of belonging to a people, a place and a common culture. When the nation becomes the primary loyalty, it gives rise to movements of national independence.
People’s spoken recollections of the past, recorded through an audio or video interview.
A person’s perspective is their point of view, the position from which they see and understand events going on around them. People in the past may have had different points of view about a particular event, depending on their age, gender, social position and their beliefs and values. For example a convict girl and an Aboriginal Elder would have had quite different perspectives on the arrival of the First Fleet in Australia. Historians also have perspectives and this can influence their interpretation of the past.
In History, primary sources are objects and documents created or written during the time being investigated, for example during an event or very soon after. Examples of primary sources include official documents, such as laws and treaties; personal documents, such as diaries and letters; photographs; film and documentaries. These original, first-hand accounts are analysed by the historian to answer questions about the past.
Capable of being measured and expressed in numerical terms, such as the numbers of women who arrived on the First Fleet, the proportion of Australian soldiers who died in World War I, radiocarbon dating of an ancient site.
In History, secondary sources are accounts about the past that were created after the time being investigated and which often use or refer to primary sources and present a particular interpretation. Examples of secondary sources include writings of historians, encyclopaedia, documentaries, history textbooks, and websites.
The importance that is assigned to particular aspects of the past, eg events, developments, movements and historical sites. Significance includes an examination of the principles behind the selection of what should be investigated and remembered. Determining historical significance involves making evaluative judgments about the past. To establish the historical significance of an event, an idea, an individual or a group involves the consideration of questions or criteria such as: How important was it to people who lived at that time? How many people were affected? How were people’s lives changed? What was the duration of the event? How important were the consequences of an event? How long lasting were the consequences? What is its legacy and relevance to the contemporary world?
Sources of evidence
Any written or non-written materials that can be used to investigate the past, for example coins, photographs, letters, gravestones, buildings. A source becomes ‘evidence’ if it is of value to a particular inquiry.
Supports the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
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