1914 to Present

1914 to Present



1914 to Present

Major Developments

I. Questions of periodization
A. Continuities and breaks
1. Most tumultuous eras in world history
a. “age of extremes”
1. Tons of democracies vs. extremist dictatorships
2. Unprecedented prosperity vs. total poverty – income gap widens
b. 1914 clearest demarcation line
1. After war, nations fight everywhere for power and territory
2. Empires weakened, monarchies toppled, new nations rose
3. Last 100 years, most dramatic/tragic in recorded history
2. World Wars
a. WWI
1. Destroyed several empires
2. Weakened all of Europe
b. WWII – largest, bloodiest, costliest
1. Ends European global mastery
3. Interwar period
a. Economic crisis – started by US
b. Dictatorial regimes – Fascist Italy, Nazi Germany, Soviet Russia
1. Totalitarian states wave of the future?
4. Communism as alternative to capitalism
5. Decolonization – Europe loses control of Africa, Asia, Pacific
a. National liberation creates new nations
1. Smooth and peaceful
2. Attained by violence
3. Turned into chaos
6. Political extremes
a. Democratization
1. Allow women to vote
b. Most extreme dictatorial regimes
1. millions imprisoned, abused, tortured, killed
7. Modernization – toward postindustrial modes
a. Developed world goes postindustrial
b. Asia industrializes and mechanizes
8. Economies
a. Globalized, grown closer together
1. Mass communication
a. Computer technology
b. Information and communications revolution
9. Closer together or further apart
a. World closer together
1. End of arms race, economic globalization, American pop culture
2. Spread of mass communications/technology
b. Pulling world apart
1. Ethnic violence
2. Extreme forms of nationalism
3. Religious fundamentalism
4. Fear of biological and chemical weaponry
5. Growing tensions between China and the West
6. Cooling of relations between US and Russia
B. Causes of changes from the previous period and within this period
1. Great wars
2. Cold War
a. Power concentrated in two evenly matched superpowers – US and USSR
b. Led to nuclear arms race
c. Divided world into two camps – bipolar
3. Reactions to Great Depression
4. Degree of Modernization - Four basic tracks of 20th century changes
1. Western Europe, United States, Canada – the West
a. Stable democratization
b. Economic prosperity
c. Thorough urbanization
d. Com mitment to social equality
e. Creation of social welfare systems
f. Scientific/technological achievements tremendous
g. Postindustrial economies that emphasize services, consumerism, cutting-edge technology
2. The Tigers – prosperous nations in Asia – Japan, Taiwan, South Korea, Indonesia, Singapore
a. Economic and technical modernization
b. Urbanized greatly
c. High degree/variety of social services
d. Economies post-industrial and high-tech
e. Japan equaled or surpassed the West
f. Nominally democratic
g. Slow to embrace/tolerate diversity and individualism
3. Soviet Union and Eastern Europe
a. Modernized economically, especially post WWII
b. Urbanized and developed social welfare services
c. Technological and scientific advancement
d. Remained industrial – didn’t move to postindustrial
e. Technological finesse – computers – cruder than West
f. Political systems dictatorial and repressive
g. After communism, difficult to move toward democracy/economic propser
4. Developing nations – Asia, Africa, Middle East, Latin America
a. Trying to attain advanced economic systems
b. Considering representative government
c. Some have made great progress
d. Others mired in backwardness, poverty, civil war, dictatorship
e. Most between two extremes
f. People’s Republic of China the anomaly
i. Geography, population, military capacity of major power
ii. Strong economy – growing fast
iii. Government authoritarian, social and economic progress uneven
iv. Technological and scientific achievement inconsistent
5. Modern vs. Postmodern Era
a. Modern era – industrialization, formation of nation-state
i. Struggle for representative government
ii. Moving toward economic equality
b. Postmodern Era
i. Postindustrial and global forms of economic organization
ii. Multiculturalism
iii. Blurring of national lines
iv. Extreme form of individualism
a. Takes for granted political/social freedoms won
v. Usually ascribed to Western world

II. Impact on the Global Framework
A. World War I – The Great War
1. Causes
1. Long term causes
a. Competition over empire
i. race for colonies in Africa, India and Southeast Asia
ii. Delicate balance of power after Congress of Vienna eroding
b. Anglo-German rivalry over empire
i. Germans jealous of Britain’s navy/empire
c. Industrial competition
d. Naval superiority
e. Rising intensity of nationalism in Europe
i. Especially in Balkans
ii. Russification – insistence on acceptance of Russian Culture
a. Led to Pan-Slavic Movement
i. Bring all Slavic nations into commonwealth
ii. Russia would be at the head
f. Alliance system
i. Two sides locked into place – Entente vs. Alliance
a. Triple Entente – France, Russia, Britain
1. Britain’s commitment informal, but honored
b. Triple Alliance – Germany, Austria, Italy
1. Italy changes sides
g. France – German bitter
i. French wanted to avenge humiliation of Prussian War – 1870
a. Loss of land – Alsace-Lorraine
b. Loss of Morrocco
ii. Both countries want a military rematch
h. Austria – Italy
i. Italy – Northern Territories controlled by Hapsburgs theirs
a. Want war to bring these territories back
i. Russia – Austria
i. Austria controls domains with Slavic minorities
ii. Leading Slavic nation – felt paternal feelings to
a. Czechs, Bulgars, Bonsians
2. Short term causes
a. Balkans – “powder keg of Europe”
b. Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand and wife Sophie
i. Heir to Austrian throne
c. Sarajevo had been annexed by Austria
i. Serbs living there and in independent Serbia angry
ii. Bosnian student – Gavrio Princip – Black Hand
d. Austria’s ultimatum – show Serbia who has more power
i. Series of humiliating demands – declare war if not followed
e. Slavic Russia – “big brother” to the Serbs
f. Germany – Kaiser Wilhelm II – German support for any action
g. France has to aid Russia
h. So…July 28, 1914 Austria declares war on Serbia
i. Russia, Germany start mobilizing
ii. By August 4, major players at war
2. War
1. Up to 1/3 of world’s productivity going toward war
2. Two sides
a. Triple Entente – the Allies – Britain, France, Russia + colonies
i. US joins in 1917
ii. Italy switches when promised Austrian territory
3. The Beginning of the War
a. The Schlieffen Plan – quick destruction of France
i. Avoid two-front war
ii. Austria couldn’t have long war – would lose
iii. Germany – 75% of army against France
a. Illegal invasion of Belgium on the way to France
1. Brought Britain into war
2. Hurts Germany’s reputation
a. Propaganda – “barbarians””huns”
iv. 25% of army + Austrians hold off Russia
v. Plan failed
a. Belgians fought back
b. Russians mobilized quickly
c. French army made stand at Marne River
4. The Fronts
a. Western Front
i. Stalemate, evenly matched with numbers and weaponry
ii. Charging the enemy pointless
a. artillery, machine guns, modern rifles
iii. Trench warfare
a. 500 miles of trenches, bunkers, barbed wire
b. Exceptionally bloody combat with little movement
c. Gross conditions – lice, rats, disease, corpses
iv. 1917 – change in tactics/weaponry
b. Eastern Front
i. Much longer front – over a thousand miles
ii. Decisive battles
a. Germans and Austrians won initially
i. Hundreds thousands miles Russian territory
b. Russia cut off from allies
i. Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria join
5. Naval warfare and the use of submarines
a. No traditional ship to ship battles
b. British Royal Navy imposed blockade
c. Germany responds with submarine warfare
i. Economic damage to Britain – island nation – imports
ii. But…killed neutral boats, civilians, nations
a. Backfires, brings US into war
6. Global Dimensions
a. Started due to empire, spread throughout empire
b. Former British colonies/dominions declare war
i. Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa
c. 2.5 million Africans involved
i. Fought Germans in Africa
ii. Helped with infrastructure
iii. Brought to Western Front – thought of as cannibals
d. Indian Sepoys and Nepalese Gurkhas in Middle East
e. Japan took over German island colonies
f. Austrialia/New Zealand try to take Ottoman Empire
i. Gallipoli a failure
g. Ottoman Empire
i. Lawrence of Arabia
a. Convinces Arabs to rise against Ottoman Empire
ii. Armenian genocide – first genocide of century
a. 500,000 > 2 million killed
7. War’s last stages
a. 1917 turning point
i. Combatants exhausted
ii. Germany turns to unrestricted submarine warfare
a. Knock out Britain
i. Works – Britain down to 6 weeks of food
b. But…diplomatically causes problems
i. US pulled into war
iii. Zimmerman Note – angers US
a. Germany tries to convince Mexico to join war
iv. Russia falling part
a. Tsarist regime falls apart
b. Army in full retreat/mass desertions
c. Lenin’s Communist takeover – pulls out of war
d. Germany sends troops to Western Front
b. 1918 – who’s faster
i. Germany moving troops to the West
ii. American getting involved in the war
iii. Germany has massive offensive against France
a. Allies hold strong – fight back
iv. War ends on November 11, 1918
8. The Home Front
a. Total war
i. Must involve nations, mobilize all resources
ii. Affected civilian populations deeply
b. Conscription
i. Drafted more than 70 million people
c. Economic Mobilization and Rationing
i. Industry geared for war
a. Raw material needed
1. iron, steel, oil, rubber, cloth
b. Uniforms, weapons, tanks, aircraft, ships
ii. Agricultural production increased
a. Civilian populations needed
iii. Women needed
iv. Private enterprise coordinated/controlled by state
v. Food, consumer goods, strategic materials rationed
v. By 1918, running out of supplies
a. Russians sent in barefoot without weapons
d. Restrictions on Civil Liberties
i. Imposed censorship on press, mass media, mail
ii. Suspected of espionage or treason
a. Arrested, tried, sentences w/out due process
iii. All political parties agree to unite
iv. If you’re pessimistic or not patriotic enough
a. Might be traitor
e. Women and the War Effort
i. Most significant impact
ii. Greater production needed – but less men
a. Farms, factories, workplaces
iii. Economic contributions huge
a. 1.35 million women in Britain
b. 38% of Krupp – arms producer – employees
c. France – minimum wage to women
3. Effects
1. Europe’s position badly weakened
a. But..retained its overseas empires for three more decades
b. Had reached zenith of position between 1870>1914
2. Butcher’s Bill
a. 30 nations involved
b. 40 million casualties, 10 million killed
c. 3-5 million civilians – disease, starvation, military action
3. Shattered four great empires
a. German Reich
b. Russia’s tsarist regime
c. Austria-Hungary’s Habsburg dynasty
d. Ottoman Empire
4. Shift in cultural attitudes
a. Spirit of optimism and faith vanished
i. Replaced with fear, anxiety, gloom
b. European’s view of themselves as civilized, culturally superior
i. Just a bit shattered
5. US emerges as leader
a. Actually benefits from war
b. Geographically untouched
6. Social changes
a. Final decline of the aristocracy
b. Rise of the middle and lower classes
c. Democratization of European politics
d. Complete industrialization and modernization of Europ economies
e. Women’s suffrage
7. Independence movements around the world
a. Colonial possessions becoming restless
b. Not if they’d be independent, but when and how
8. Paris Peace Conference
a. Participants
i. All Allied Nations invited, Central Powers left out
ii. Five treaties for each defeated nation
a. Germany, Austria, Hungary, Bulgaria, Ottoman
iii. Treaty of Versailles – agreement w/ Germany
a. Agreed to on June 28, 1919
b. Ideological disagreements
i. American idealism vs. European desire for revenge
a. Wilson – make world “safe for democracy”
i. Fourteen Points
i. End to secret treaties
ii. Freedom of the seas
iii. Arms reduction
iv. Decolonization
v. Self-determination
vi. League of Nations – for disputes
b. Clemenceau – make Germany pay
i. Feared Germany rising again
ii. Justify human/financial cost of war
c. Italy wanted Austrian land/German colonies
ii. European victors opposed decolonization
9. Terms of the Treaties
a. League of Nations created, but US Congress doesn’t ratify
b. Fourteen Points watered down or ignored
c. Main points
i. Dismantling of Austria-Hungary – split and lost territory
ii. New nations from Hapsburg Empire – “self determination”
a. Yugoslovia, Czech, Poland, Finland, Latvia
b. Lithuania, Estonia
iii. Italy gets some of Austrian Empire – Tyrol
a. But not Adriatic Coast stuff
iv. Forced immigration
a. Turks moved to Ottoman Empire
b. Greeks moved back to Greece
v. Middle East
a. Ottoman Empire stripped of possessions
b. Arab lands temporarily controlled by France/Britain
i. Mandate system supervised by League of Na
c. Arabs annoyed – thought granted independence
d. Britain takes control of Palestine
i. Balfour Declaration
ii. Delayed creating Jewish homeland
d. Treaty of Versailles
i. War guilt – Article 231 – Germany must accept full blame
ii. Loss of territory
a. Lost 13% of territory, 6 million people
b. Alsace and Lorraine go to France
c. Poland, Belgium, Denmark get land also
d. Rhineland to remain demilitarized forever
iii. Loss of colonies – all colonies taken – controlled by Allies
iv. Disarmament – No military aircraft, submarines, battleships
a. Only small artillery and 100,000 soldiers
v. War payments – reparations
a. Germany pay for full cost of war - $32 billion (400)
b. War payments until 1961
10. Problems of Paris Peace Conference
a. Made out of greed/revenge
b. Ignorant creation of Eastern European nations – fall into chaos
c. Harsh treatment (economic especially) of Germany would anger
11. Long Term Effects
a. Countless people made homeless/stateless
b. Global epidemic of Spanish flu – 20 million people killed in world
c. Destruction of eastern and central European empires
d. Communism in Russia
e. Instability in Eastern Europe – economic/political chaos
f. social transformation – death to aristocracy
g. Women’s suffrage – proved could do “man’s work”
h. German resentment at peace treaty – anger
i. General decline of European economic/global power
i. Hard to control global empires, some lost them
j. Sense of uncertainty and anxiety – loss of faith in progress
k. Separation of ethnic groups across several nation-states
i. Led to World War II
l. Russia lost Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia Poland from its territory
m. European colonialism didn’t end – former German territories become mandates
12. Outcomes
1. Britain destroyed – lost youth, debts, empire tired and a burden
2. France – nation blasted flat, war widows/amputees everywhere
3. Japan – fought for Allies, disappointed at Versailles
i. Postwar economic downturn led to political/econ problems
ii. Couldn’t keep territory won from Germany
4. Italy – didn’t receive as much land as they wanted
5. United States – elevated to world power status, but doesn’t want it
6. China – entered war late, lost land to Japan
7. Russia – fell apart, Civil War (Reds vs. Whites), USSR formed
8. Germany – economically/politically destroyed
i. Monarchy gone, but Weimar Republic not trusted/legitimate

B. World War II
1. Causes
1. Aggression on part of Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy, militaristic Japan
a. Initially aggression met with passive response – appeasement
i. Depression a killer
ii. Want to avoid another WWI
iii. League of Nations useless
2. Hitler’s steps to war
a. Ignores Versailles
i. Rebuilds army
ii. Puts troops in Rhineland (supposed to be demilitarized)
b. Supports Fascist govt in Spain
i. Stalin goes it alone – annoyed with Brits/US
ii. Anti-Comintern Pact – anti-communism – Axis Powers
c. Annexes Austria – Anschluss – “union”
d. Sudetenland – Munich Agreement – takes rest of Czechoslovakia
i. Pinnacle of appeasement
ii. Chamberlain looks like an idiot – “peace in our time”
iii. Stalin believes Britain/France bumbling idiots
a. Signs secret deal w/ Hitler
i. Agree to not fight, divide up Poland
iv. Hitler looks smart when he takes rest of Czech.
3. Japan’s steps to war
a. military takes control of government
b. Takes Manchuria – renames Manchuko – Pu Yi as emperor
c. Japan invades mainland China – commits a ton of atrocities
d. Japanese fight in Siberia – undeclared war
e. Japan attacks US Pearl Harbor
f. starts taking over Southeast Asia – kicking out European colonist
4. Economic causes
a. huge reparations paid by Germany
b. spiraling inflation in Germany
c. decrease in prices for farm products, especially US
d. collapse of the US Stock Market
e. deepening worldwide depression
f. Japan lacked energy resources for industrial development
5. Political problems
a. anger and frustration over the peace treaty – Hitler/Mussolini
2. War
1. New Technology
a. Unlike WWI, not defensive warfare
b. Favors rapid, dynamic warfare
c. Aircraft carriers, landing craft, long-range submarines
d. New artillery – distance huge
e. strategic bombers – thousands of miles, kill civilians
f. Makes war more global, more deadly
g. Led to secondary civilian technology
i. radar, jet aircraft, synthetic materials (nylon)
ii. rocketry, atomic energy, computer science
2. Blitzkrieg “lightning war”
a. Tanks + airplanes + troops – penetrate deeply
b. France/Britain wait for Germany, think defense best, wrong war
i. “phony war” – Sitzkrieg – winter of waiting for attack
c. Spring/Summer 1940 – Hitler takes Western Europe
i. Weeks, days, months – super fast
ii. France gone in 6 weeks
a. Maginot Line just not that effective
d. Britain left alone to fight Italy, Germany
i. Battle of Britain – knock Britain out of war
a. Royal Navy prevents invasion
b. Royal Air Force/Radar protects skies
c. Economic aid from US and Canada
e. US helps with Lend-Lease program
3. Germany goes South and East
a. Protects Italy in Africa
b. Operation Barbarossa – Invades Soviet Union
i. 60-75% of Germany army fighting in USSR
a. Smart movie Adolph
ii. Reached Leningrad, Moscow
a. But winter and resilient population defeated Germany
4. Japanese aggression
a. European struggles in Europe makes it hard to protect colonies
i. Southeast Asia goes to Japan
b. Wants to establish Greater East Asian Co-Prosperity Sphere
c. US imposes economic sanctions in response to aggression
i. Japan needs US steel, oil raw materials
ii. Embargo act of war, so…
d. Japan attacks Pearl Harbor, takes over Pacific
e. Brings US into war
i. Now you have most productive economy +
ii. Incredible natural resources and manpower
a. No one can match America’s military industrialization + mass conscription of troops
5. Civilians as targets
a. Hitler killed 12 million Jews, gypsies, Slaves, religious groups
b. Japan killed 300,000 civilians – mostly in Nanking
c. Allied firebombing of Japanese cities and Dresden/Germany
d. Atomic bombings of Nagasaki and Hiroshima
6. Allies on the Offensive
a. Axis skill and quality armed forces vs.
b. Allied geographic size, humanpower, economies, natural resources
i. Longer war lasts, better chance Allies win
ii. Japan’s failure to take US, Germany’s fails Britain/USSR
c. Turning point 1942 – Axis loses all three battles
i. Midway – US Navy destroys Japanese aircraft fleet
ii. El Alamein – British defeat Rommell’s German tanks
iii. Stalingrad – Soviets prevent taking of S. Russia/oil
d. Shifting Tide – 1943-1944
i. Pacific – pushed Japan west + guerilla fighting
ii. Allies take N. Africa, invade Italy
iii. June 1944 – Normandy – Operation Overlord – D-Day
a. Hitler now has 3 front war
e. War at sea and in the air
i. At sea, defeats submarine fleet
ii. Allies control skies after 1943 – bomb Germany indiscrimat
iii. 1944 – bomb Japan constantly
f. End of World War II
i. May 1945 Germany surrenders – surrounded
ii. Japan continues with no chance of winning
a. Truman doesn’t want to invade
b. Traditional bombing not defeating Japan
iii. Atomic bomb
a. Japan warned
b. Aug. 6 Enola Gay > Hiroshima
c. August 9 > Nagasaki
i. Hundreds of thousands killed
d. Japan agrees to cease fire
3. Effects
1. Europe in paradoxical situation
a. Became Cold War battleground
b. Dismantled Europe’s global dominance
c. After repair, enjoyed greatest prosperity ever
i. Wealthies/most technologically advanced in world
ii. Even Eastern Europe recovered and industrialized
3. Short term effects
a. Huge refuges – “displaced persons”
b. Nations/cities in ruins
c. Poverty horrendous
d. Shortage of food, clothing, consumer goods
e. Colonies push for independence
i. In some cases, causes European gov’t to collapse - Algeria
3. Left world power divided between US and USSR
4. State of world after war
a. United States occupied Japan
b. Korea divided between US and USSR
c. China regained territory – civil war between Nationalists/Communis
d. Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia become Soviet provinces
e. Czechoslovakia, Hungaria, Bulgaria, Romania occupied
f. Colonies renewed independence efforts
g. European world dominance ended
h. International dominance between two superpowers – USSR/USA

C. The Holocaust and other war crimes
1. 73 months of fighting – countless war crimes
1. Half of 60 million killed were civilians
2. Behavior fell outside the lines of international law/acceptable behavior
3. “crimes against humanity” term emerges from WWII
2. All sides guilty
1. Axis Powers – holocaust/rape of China
2. Soviet Union
a. Rape, plunder, destruction of civilian property in E. Europe
3. USA/British
a. Strategic/carpet bombing of civilian areas
b. Using atomic bomb?
3. Japanese War Crimes
1. Before WWII, Japan had committed thousands of atrocities
a. Worse – Rape of Nanjing – 200-400,000
2. Killed countless prisoners of war
a. Against rules of military combat
3. Prisoners of war used as scientific experiments – Unit 731
4. “Comfort women” in Korea and Southeast Asia
a. Forced into prostitution for Japanese soldiers
5. During Tokyo Trials, Japan tried for these crimes
4. Nazi Atrocities – based on notions of racial purity
1. Before war, Nazis had created system of terror
a. Secret police (Gestapo) and concentration camps (Dachau)
1. Dissidents, religious figures imprisoned/executed
b. Euthanize medical patients with incurable diseases, venereal disease, tuberculosis – homosexuals (mentally disabled)
c. Performed medical and scientific experiments
1. Usually mutilated or killed
2. Racial policy/genocide
a. Targeted groups deemed “subhuman” or “undesirable”
1. Slaves, gypsies, Jews
3. Series of laws against Jews
a. Nuremberg Laws of 1935
4. Violence doesn’t become “official” policy until WWII
a. November 1938 – Kristallnacht “Night of Broken Glass”
1. Jewish shops, synagogues, homes burned
5. As Nazis took over more territory, more Jews rounded up
5. Stages of the Holocaust – Final Solution
1. 1939-1940
a. Yellow star, ghettos, imprisoned in camps, sporadic execution
2. 1941
a. Execution of all Communist Members – invading USSR
b. Orders to prepare for the “Final Solution”
c. “special action squads” Einsatzgruppen – kill Jews in USSR
1. too slow, too wasteful, hard on morale, buried bodies
d. Experiments carried out to find “efficient” method
e. Cyanide-based insecticide – Zyklon-B used
3. 1942
a. Wannsee Conference – decide on “Final Solution” – 15 meet
b. Extermination camps go into operation
4. 1943-1945
a. Jews shipped from all over, gassed, cremated
b. Soviet liberation of camps in Poland – 1944
c. Camps in west liberated by US/Brits in 1945
5. 12 million deaths – 6 million Jews
6. Nuremberg Trials – Americans, British, Soviets
a. Court for remaining military/political leaders
D. The Cold War
1. Overview
1. Used nations as pawns in their struggle
a. US/USSR never went to war against each other, but…
b. Dozens of small/medium-sized war – 50 million deaths
2. Fundamental shift in world power
a. Previous 200 years, power in hands of Europe
i. Shifting power between 6/7 nations
b. But…Europe devastated by war
3. Bipolar Equilibrium – two nations, evenly matched share global power
a. Democratic capitalism vs. communism
b. Deadliest arms race
4. Both nations hugely wealthier/more powerful than any other power
5. Affected decolonization
a. Newly freed nations had to choose who to ally with
6. Major features of competition
a. Technological
i. Arms race, space race
b. Geopolitical
i. vied for influence across globe
ii. Especially in developing nations
iii. Weapons training provided to side
c. Ideological
i. Capitalism vs. communism – which do you want
ii. Led to the division of nations
a. N. and S. Korea
b. N. and S. Vietnam
c. E. and W. Germany
d. People’s Republic of China vs. Republic of China
7. Local conflicts before 1991
a. Surrogate wars where superpowers didn’t fight, but…
i. Supported combatants on both sides
2. Wartime Diplomacy
1. Alliance with Stalin only because needed to defeat Hitler
a. Tension from the beginning
2. Issues dealt with at Teheran, Yalta and Potsdam Conferences
a. Second Front – D-Day Normandy planned
b. Stalin agrees to declare war on Japan after Germans defeated
i. In exchange he wants territory and Korea divided
c. Treatment of Germany – divided into four sectors
i. Berlin in Soviet zone – but access to rail, road, train
ii. Denazification – former Nazis removed from office
iii. Germany also divided
iv. $20 billion in reparations
d. United Nations – Roosevelt convinces Chruchill, Stalin
e. Fate of Eastern Europe – toughest issue
i. Soviet troops occupy all of Eastern Europe
a. Stalin wants for sphere of influence
b. Can’t push or he won’t fight Hitler
ii. Agreement at Yalta
a. Soviets can have influence, but…
b. They have to allow free elections
3. Bretton Woods, New Hampshire
a. 44 Allied countries meet to discuss future
i. Committed to economic growth, free trade, stable money
b. International Bank for Reconstruction and Development
i. aka World Bank
c. International Monetary Fund
i. Goal…rebuild Europe
ii. Lend assistance to Latin American, African, Asian countries
d. Exchange rates tied to US dollar, which was tied to gold
e. USSR refuses, isolates itself from the “First World”
4. Churchill/Roosevelt criticized when “secret agreements” made public
a. Abandoned Poland, E. Germany, Eastern Europe, China - communis
3. The Cold War Begins
1. Cold War begins with tensions before end of WWII
2. 1945-1949 – first phase concerned with Europe
a. Europe becomes superpowers’ battleground
b. Europe divided into two camps separated by “Iron Curtain”
i. West – NATO + European Union + Marshall Plan
ii. East – Warsaw Pact + COMECON
c. Soviet takeover of Eastern Europe
i. All but Yugosloavia – Tito and Albania
a. Created independent communist regimes
ii. The rest under control/influence of USSR
d. Soviets push communism/support parties in
i. Greece, Turkey, Iran
e. Soviets reasoning
i. Destroyed by war
a. 30 million people dead
b. 1./3 of economy destroyed
ii. Wants buffer zone
iii. Stalin feels vulnerable due to atomic bomb
a. Provoke US as far as can go
i. Thus the Berlin Blockade and Airlift
f. US response – Containment – free world keeps USSR from expand
i. Truman Doctrine
a. moral/material aid to countries fighting communism
b. Saves Greece and Turkey from communism
ii. Marshall Plan
a. Try to avoid Great Depression – poverty = extremism b. Put $13 billion into economy
c. Resistance in US Congress
i. end any chance of working w/ USSR
ii. reestablish US as imperial power
iii. bankrupt the nation
iv. set up Europe as competitors for markets
v. should be aimed at Asia not Europe
iii. NATO – military alliance
a. Troops remain in Europe – trip wire
i. As soon as one attacked, US in war
iv. All of these = containment
a. USSR would expand as far as it could
b. Must be contained
c. Philosophy
i. Not war
ii. Economic/military aid to those in need
d. Problem – Soviets act, US reacts
e. Affected how US chose allies
i. Not communist? We’ll support you.
f. Spend a ton of money in arms race
g. Resistance to Soviet rule
i. Hungarian revolt 1956 put down by Soviets
ii. Prague Spring – Czech – 1968
a. Resistance to censorship = Soviet invasion
iii. Poland – Soviet rule relaxed – land ownership/religion
5. The Cold War Globalizes
a. Globalization of the Cold War
i. 1949 turning point – US creates NATO, USSR has nuclear bomb
a. Civil War – Mao vs. Chaing Kai Shek comes to an end
a. China allies with Russia
b. Two largest nations on earth now joined by Communism
ii. Arena of Cold War would become Asia, Africa, Latin America
b. The Korean War
i. N. Korea invades S. Korea
ii. US and United Nations come to the aide of S. Korea
iii. Push N. Korea back until Chinese “volunteers” advance
iv. Cease fire puts boundaries at original line
v. 1.25 million casualties
c. New issues
i. Stalin replaced by Khrushchev
a. More global, but more unpredictable
ii. Nuclear Arms Race
a. By 1960s, both had missiles, ICBMs, and submarine nukes
b. Quantity kept increasing, though enough to blow up world
c. Have to be extremely wary of catalyst that would start war
d. MAD – mutually assured destruction – a deterrent, you’ll die
iii. The concept of the Third World
a. Europe already divided, any shift could lead to war
b. However, Africa, Asia, Europe prime targets
i. Modernizing and decolonizing
ii. Who will have your back?
c. USSR/China actively spread communism – Comintern
d. US tried to stop – “domino theory” – one goes, they all go
i. US willing to choose bad allies, better than Commun.
a. Dictators or authoritarian leaders
d. The 1950s
i. Khrushchev liberalizes, but also a firm hand
a. Hungary invaded when it tries to leave Soviet Bloc – 1956
ii. Europe has minimal power – USSR/USA support Egypt’s natinonali
a. France/England have to back down – give up Suez
iii. Space race – rocket technology linked to nuclear prowess – 1957
iv. Cuban Revolution – proximity to US key point
e. The 1960s
i. Tension of the first part
a. U-2 pilot Francis Gary Powers shot down – spying
b. John F. Kennedy approves failed invasion of Cuba
i. Bay of Pigs – US embarrassed
c. Yuri Gagarin first man in space – not an American
d. Berlin Wall vs. Kennedy “I am a Berliner”
e. Soviets ship rockets to Cuba > Cuban Missile Crisis
i. Leads to quarantine/blockade
ii. Closest to WWIII
iii. USSR pulls out in exchange for
a. US removes Turkey missiles
b. Promises to not invade Cuba
ii. Mid>Late 1960s
a. Scared to death how close they came, start to cool off
i. Nuclear Test Ban Treaty
ii. Install “hot line” “red phone” – avoid Cub.MisCris
b. Brezhnev takes over – more hardline
i. Focuses energy on Soviet Bloc countries
c. US wins space race – 1969 man on the moon
d. USSR/China split – Sino-Soviet Split
i. Disagreed on path of communism internationally
a. China – unite non-aligned nations
i. India/Indonesia etc.
ii. Use these to combat Soviets
ii. Mao tired of being treated as “younger brother”
iii. Chinese felt treated as racially inferior
iv. Border becomes militarized zone
v. US took advantage of split
iii. The Vietnam War
a. Superpowers intervene in many civil/anticolonial wars
b. Ho Chi Minh wants independence from French
i. US doesn’t want Ho Chi Minh
ii. End up supporting unpopular dictator in South
a. Sends military to support South gov’t
c. US eventually pulls out, Vietnam goes Communist
6. Latin America as Cold War Battlefield
a. All military dictatorships heavily in debt to United States
b. Cuba attempted to export Marxist revolution to Latin America
i. US supports any regime that opposes communism
ii. Pro-US regimes usually dictatorial and right-wing
c. Perfect example of Cold War politics – Nicaraguan Revolution
i. Marxist, Soviet-supported Sandinista movement
a. Overthrows Somoza dictatorship – US supported
ii. US supports counterrevolutionary contras
iii. Becomes essentially a proxy war between US and USSR
7. The Late Stages of the Cold War
a. Détente – 1970s
i. Both sides agree to relax tensions
a. Economically suffering
i. USSR needs grain shipments
b. US still wounded from Vietnam
c. USSR fears US and China becoming allies
ii. Still conflict around the world, plus arms race, but…
iii. Starting to work together
a. Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty – prevent spread to other nations
b. Signed first arms control treaties SALT – 1972
c. Both sponsor Apollo-Soyuz space mission
d. Helsinki Accords – USSR agrees to more human rights
b. The Cold War resumes – 1980s
i. USSR invades Afghanistan – threatens oil
ii. US elects Ronald Reagan – conservative, hard-line foreign affairs
iii. Arms race intensifies - $300 billion a year
iv. Publicly both very aggressive
a. USSR called “evil empire”
b. Both boycott Olympics
c. The Cold War Ends
i. Steady internal collapse of USSR
a. Brezhnev and two successors die quickly
ii. Gorbachev tries to reform USSR – can’t keep up with USA
a. Allows E. European nations to free themselves
b. Enters into arms negotiations
c. Berlin Wall comes down in 1989 – symbol of “iron curtain”
d 1991 – USSR collapses

E. Nuclear weaponry
1. Cold War
2. Largest and most expensive weapons buildup in world history
a. 1949 USSR explodes atomic bomb – let the race begin
b. Both sides built up stockpiles of weapons and threatened each other
c. Deterrence – both sides afraid to strike, fear of being destroyed
i. Mutually Assured Destruction – MAD
3. Détente – Nixon tries to ease tensions with USSR
a. 1969 – nuclear nonproliferation treaty
b. USSR needs wheat from US
c. USSR wants to improve position against China
d. SALT – Strategic Arms Limitation Treaties – limit antiballistic missiles
i. Cooperate on health research, space exploration, trade, pollution
F. International organizations
1. Rebuilding Europe after WWII
a. Soviet Bloc – COMECON - Council for Mutual Economic Assistance
i. Economies nationalized/centrally planned
ii. Collectivization under state control
iii. Massive industrialization
iv. “socialist division of labor” – every nation focuses in a few areas
v. Soviet welfare systems
a. education, medical care, pensions
vi. Poor quality consuper goods
vii. Focus on heavy industry/weapons
viii. Maintained through political repression
b. Western Europe – Marshall Plan – European Recovery Plan
i. A “miracle” – helped prevent the spread of communism
ii. W. Germany rose from ruins – European economic powerhouse
iii. Technical innovation – move to postindustrial world
iv. Put into place social welfare systems
v. Created “third way” – blend of capitalism and social-welfare
b. Warsaw Pact
2. Economic
3. Political
4. Human Rights
a. League of Nations
G. Emergence of the United States
1. Became world’s richest and most powerful nation
2. United States taken role as police officer/peace negotiator for the world
a. Sent troops to Grenada, Somalia and Berlin to protect people/interests
b. Acted as mediator between Israel/Palestinians, N. Ireland
c. Used diplomacy to create wide coalition of support
i. Persian Gulf War/Taliban in Afghanistan
3. Willingness to engage in diplomatic dialogue shifted with War in Iraq
H. New challenges
1. Iraq – annexed oil rich Kuwait in 1990 led to Persian Gulf War
a. 2003 – Iraq War – Weapons Mass Destruction/oppressive regime
2. India/Pakistan – 1998 announce nuclear weapons
a. Still fight over Kashmir region
3. North Korea developing nuclear weapons
4. Africa/Asia
a. Lack resources to develop
i. Look to World Bank and International Monetary Fund
b. Violent ethnic conflicts
c. Warfare continues between US and Iraq, and US and Afghanistan
5. Good news
a. South Africa ends apartheid
b. India world’s largest democracy
c. New governments based on civil rights in Iraq and Afghanistan

III. Global balance of power
A. Reduction of European influence
1. 1940s to 1970s – mass wave of decolonization
1. Europe deprived of its empires
2. Nations become free
B. The League of Nations
1. Hurt by American Congress refusal to ratify
2. Well-meaning, but impotent to enforce plans
3. Accomplished a great deal of humanitarian work
4. Attempts to maintain peace and don’t fight wars
1. Countries sign Treaty of Locarno and Kellogg-Briand Pact – outlaw war
5. Original charter
1. collective security for member nations
2. disarmament
3. arbitration of international disputes
C. The United Nations
1. Responsibility for settling postwar problems
2. Led by five Allied victors – US, USSR, Great Britain, France, Republic of China
a. Permanent members of Security Council
b. All most vote “yes” for substantive measures
3. Established relief agencies and peacekeeping missions
4. US took on many of the costs – leading superpower/wealthiest nation
5. Structure of UN
1. Security Council – New York – keeping peace
2. International Court of Justice – Hague – Netherlands
3. Secretariat – administration – New York
4. General Assembly – debate – New York
5. Economic Social Council
a. UNESCO – science/culture, UNICEP, children
b. ILO – labor issues, WHO – global health, UNHCR – refugees
6. Nations join voluntarily
1. Cannot pass laws, but raise issues and suggest resolutions
7. UN responses to military aggression
1. Diplomatic protest and pressure
2. Economic sanctions
3. Collective military action by member states
8. Declaration of Universal Human Rights – basic human rights of all people
D. The Non-Aligned Nations
1. Nonaligned movement – 110 nations – 1961
1. Mostly developing nations seek to cooperate on political, economic, culture
E. Post Cold War
1. One superpower – United States
2. Alliances and coalitions constantly shifting
3. China increasing in power
4. New kind of war – terrorism against citizens of enemy nations
1. Islamic fundamentalism led to September 11, WTC bombing

IV. New patterns of nationalism
A. Interwar years
1. Fascist parties focus on nationalism
a. Exclusion/persecution of minorities
2. Comparing nationalism in Europe to the colonies
a. Europe and Japan
i. Nationalism fueled racism, fascism and domination
ii. National pride synonymous with national expansion
a. Conquering of other peoples
b. In colonies
i. Nationalism equaled self-determination
ii. Ability to free nation from another’s rule/determine one’s destiny
iii. National pride meant national sovereignty
B. Decolonization
1. Major Themes
a. Third World Nations
1. Many struggle to develop healthy political/economic structures
2. Many places caused more problems than solved
b. Caught up in Cold War struggle – became pawns in larger conflict
c. Creates huge imbalances
1. Technological development
2. Vast gap between West’s affluence and third world poverty
d. Lagged behind economically and politically
e. Steps in place by World War II
1. Britain becomes British Commonwealth < British Empire
a. After armed uprising from Ireland – 1922
2. Britain/France give Middle Eastern mandates more autonomy
f. WWII pried grip Europe had on colonies
g. Overthrow of governments installed/supported by foreigners
1. Especially true in L. America – US supported regimes
2. These were struggles for national liberation
h. Reasons for decolonization
1. African independence movements
2. world opinion
3. cost of maintaining colonies
4. ideology – hard to defend colonialism, when just finished war for democracy
i. Generalizations
1. African nations with clear black majority – nationhood easier
2. Colonies with large white population
i. Protracted and bloody revolution
a. Southern Rhodesia
b. South Africa
3. France not willing to release as readily as Great Britain
i. Mimics attitude toward colonies in setting up
a. Colonial administrative structure
j. Legacies of decolonization - Africa
1. Africa new nations faced with
i. Civil wars because of rival ethnic groups w/in nation
ii. military takeovers due to lack of democratic experience
iii. population explosion
iv. low per capita income
v. lack of local capital for infrastructure and industry
vi. urbanization
vii. government corruption
2. Responses to problems
i. imposition of socialism – ujamaa in Tanzania
ii. call for African authenticity
iii. adoption of one-party political systems
iv. assumption of huge debtloads
k. Legacies of decolonization – Middle East
1. Middle East faced with
i. Ethnic divisions
ii. military coups
iii. government corruption
iv. population explosion
v. poverty with problem of life expectancy
vi. lack of capital
vii. dwindling supplies of fresh water
2. Responses
i. socialism
ii. large debt from international lenders
iii. religious fundamentalism
l. Legacies of decolonization – Latin America
1. Latin America ended colonization century earlier – still problems
2. Biggest problem – unequal distribution of wealth
i. Land, mines and business enterprises
a. Belonged to few wealthy, or…
b. Foreign investors
2. Patterns of decolonization
a. Newly liberated nation could build a successful political/economic if
1. Did it fight a war to become free?
2. How enlightened were the educated native elite
a. Did colonizer help w/ transition
b. Britain did well, France OK, Portugal/Belgium bad
3. Degree of ethnic, cultural, religious differences
4. Degree of natural resources
a. Did economy diversify or remain monoculture
b. Did it continue same method of using natural resources
i. Only increased income gap
c. Degree of environmental damange
5. Did they take sides in the Cold War
a. Usually sided with Communists
i. Former colonizers US allies
ii. Marxist rhetoric of USSR appealing
b. Flow of intertribal weapons
2. South and Southeast Asia
a. Nationalists and anti-imperial aspirations spread
b. Vietnam, Burma, Indonesia push for independence
1. Uneasy alliance between
a. Westernized middle class
b. Intellectuals and students
c. Inspired by Marx and Lenin
2. Like in China, these alliances soon fell apart
c. India
1. Indian National Congress (Congress Party) pushes for change
2. Want independence or dominion status (like Canada, NZ, Aus)
a. Felt they were owed after 1.2 million troops
3. Demonstrations and protests – led by Gandhi
4. Armitsar massacre – British fire on unarmed protesters
a. Gandhi goes to prison, British get more restrictive
5. Britain gradually grants concessions, but Congress pushes for more
6. Peaceful resistance – satyagraha – “hold to the truth”
a. Salt march – 50,000 – 200 mile march – make salt illegally
b. Gandhi jailed
c. 1935 Government of India Act
a. Increased suffrage/provincial gov’t to Indian leaders
7. Jawaharlal Nehru takes over Congress/movement
a. Ghandi – spiritual leader + Nehru – political leader
b. Begin “Quit India” campaign – Brits leave
8. Muslim League
a. Muhammad Ali Jinnah
b. Creation of a Muslim state – Pakistan – “land of the pure”
a. Nation separated by 1000 miles of Indian territory
9. Independence in 1947 leads to bloodshed/civil war
a. Bitter Indo-Pakistani rivalry exists today
10. Key points
a. Britain removed East India Company
b. Set up colonial administration
c. Agitation for independence – strikes/demonstrations
d. After WWII – Britain agrees to independence – 1947
e. Muslim minority afraid of Hindu-dominated India
f. Britain breaks India into Hindu India and Muslim Pakistan
g. 1971 Civil War in Pakistan
a. West > Pakistan and East > Bangladesh
3. Nationalism resulting from Arab-Israeli Conflict
a. Jews create new homeland – Zionist nation
b. Palestinians forced into exile –new nationalism for refugee homeland
1. Palestinian Liberation Organization – PLO
a. Terrorist organization and political movement
b. Leader - Yasser Arafat
c. Arabness untied as common enemy becomes Israel
d. Establishment of Israel
1. Britain had agreed to create a Jewish state, but delayed 1920s/1930s
a. Wanted to avoid Arab conflict
2. International sympathy + US support led to establishment of Israel
a. Immediate war – Arab outrage
b. Israel easily wins war
c. Millions of Palestinian Arabs displaced to Jordan, Lebanon, rest of Middle East
e. Arab-Israeli Conflict
1. Several Arab states-Israeli wars
a. Six-Day War – 1967
b. Yom Kippur War – 1973
2. Israel easily wins wars – supremely trained, highly motivated, US
3. Anwar al-Sadat of Egypt recognizes Israel in 1978
a. Sinai Peninsula returned
b. Moderate nations begin to recognize Israel’s nation status
4. Palestinians continue to wage intifada – only nationalism available
a. Demonstrations and protests that lead to bloodshed
b. Begin terrorist attacks
5. Israel choice – breakdown in human rights/democracy for security
a. Oftentimes have to attack poorly armed minors
4. Africa
a. Ghana first in 1957, Namibia last 1990
b. Settler colonies take longer, become violent
1. South Africa – Afrikaners impose apartheid
a. Colored prohibited from voting, getting best jobs
c. Egypt
1. Won independence in 1930, but Britain still controlled Suez
2. 1952, after embarrassing Arab-Israeli war, revolt
a. King Farouk replaced by Gamal Nasser
i. 1956 – Egypt ended influence of Britain
3. Again Egypt loses to Israel – Six-Day War in 1967
a. Since they’ve solicited/accepted US/Western aide

C. Racism/Genocide
1. Fascists – dominant race vs. inferior races/scapegoats
2. Wartime genocides
a. Armenian Genocide by Ottoman Empire
b. Holocaust
3. South Africa - Apartheid
D. New nationalisms
1. The Middle East
a. Prior to WWI, on threshold of change
1. Young Turks – secularization, science, technology
b. After WWI, occupied areas have nationalistic reaction
1. The Turkish state
a. Roots in Young Turks – seized power in 1908
1. Modernizing officers/politicians
b. But…joined Central Powers – Ottoman Empire ended
1. Peace treaty stripped most of its territory
2. Greece tries to take advantage
c. Ataturk – Colonel Mustafa Kemal
1. Forms new government in Ankara
a. Expels Greeks and overthrows Sultan
2. Drove out Greeks
3. Sultan kicked out in 1923
4. Turkish Republic created
5. Took title “Ataturk” – father of the Turks
6. Attempts to make modern state
a. Industrialization
b. Western dress
c. Western education
d. Turkish in Roman alphabet
e. Church and state separated
f. Shar’ia replaced with European laws
g. Women not required to be veiled
h. Women right to vote in 1934
a. Encouraged to be educated
b. Join workforce
7. Most Westernized, secular state due to Attaturk
2. Persian Independence
a. From 1794-1925 Persia ruled by Qajar dynasty
1. But Russia controlled north, British south
b. After WWI, Britain increased presence – oil
1. Led to nationalistic backlash
c. 1925 Reza Khan military leader leads mutiny
1. Expels British
2. Creates new royal dynasty
3. Renamed Iran
4. Westernized Iran
5. Boosted education
6. Did away with veil for women
7. Secularized nation
8. Quite authoritarian
3. Egypt, North Africa, Arabia
a. Arab lands divided into mandates
1. Supervised by League of Nations also
2. France – Syria and Lebanon
3. Britain – Iraq, Jordan, and Palestine
b. European presence quite annoying
1. Fought for Allies, thought they’d be rewarded
2. Angered at Balfour Declaration
a. Jewish state – only 10% in Palestine
c. Zionist movement
1. Mass immigration in 1920s and 1930s
2. British tried to limit – to avoid conflict
3. By 1939 – Jews 30% of Palestine
d. Arabia has to kick out remaining Ottomans
1. Ibn Saud united Arabian tribes
2. Names new area Saudi Arabia – 1932
3. 1938 – Standard Oil discovers oil
a. Now it becomes real important
4. Patterns in Postwar Middle East
a. Independence went to former colonies/mandates
b. Region critical due to source of petroleum
1. 2/3 of world’s oil from Middle East
2. Wealth hasn’t eliminated poverty/inequality
a. Profits go to upper class
3. Major reserves not in most heavily-populated
c. Contradiction modernize vs. preserve Islamic tradition
1. Iran and Afghanistan – fundamentalist
2. How to balance religious/cultural heritage, but
a. democracy
b. freedom of religion
c. freedom of the press
d. secular law codes
e. gender equality
f. women
i. reproductive freedom
ii. how they dress
iii. whether go out in public
iv. types of education/jobs available
d. Destabilizing effect of Arab-Israeli conflict since 1948
e. Competition between US and USSR in Cold War
f. Dictatorship, authoritarian rule, human rights abuses
g. Turkey/Iran modernized – already independent Interwar per
5. Problems in the Middle East
a. 1948 - Israel – Jewish Haganah vs. British then Arabs
b. 1956 – Sinai War – easy victory Israel – threaten Suez Canal
c. 1967 – Six Day War – Israel takes Jerusalem and West Bank
d. 1973 – Yom Kippur – Egypt attacks Israel – 16 day war
e. 1980 – Iran’s new leader vs. Iraq’s Saddam Hussein
f. 1982 – Israel invades Lebanon as buffer zone
g. 1990 – Iraq invades Kuwait, UN coalition liberates
h. 2003 – US attacks Kuwait – fear of WMD
a. Military routed, occupation/nation-building now
2. Breakup of the Soviet Union
a. Command economy of the Soviet Union not working
1. economy stagnant due to problems inherent in central planning
2. consumer lines longer for fewer goods
3. alcoholism became national concern
4. foreign policies draining resources
a. arms race
b. war in Afghanistan
c. funding to developing nations to counter China/US
b. Mikhail Gorbachev enters
1. signals end to Cold War
2. Introduced glasnost – openness in government
3. Introduced perestroika – restructuring of economic/political process
a. permitted some private ownership
b. Permitted some private control of agriculture/industry
c. Foreign investment allowed
d. Companies allowed to produce consumer goods
4. Reforms led to growing discontent in satellite nations
a. 1991 Baltic republics declare independence
b. Independence movements spread to Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova
c. 1991 Soviet Union dissolved
1. Republics began declaring independence
2. Nations of Eastern Europe turned back communist leaders
3. Becomes Commonwealth of Independent States
4. Today, Russia still struggles with economic weakness/ethnic clashes
d. New nations of Eastern Europe
1. Impossible to preserve ethnic unity – divided across lands
2. Soviet Union had kept ethnic tensions underground
3. So…fighting, secession, ethnic cleansing mars future
a. Bosnia, Kosovo, Yugoslavia, Chechnya
b. Yugoslovia – bitter conflict results
i. Muslims, Serbs, Croats
4. Problems faced
a. privatizing of national industries
i. Corruption –buy companies at discount prices
b. end of central planning
c. adoption of free-market economies
i. No tradition of supply/demand and competition
d. high unemployment
e. inflation
f. some places energized for return to communism

3. China – Birth of the Chinese Republic
a. After 1911 – China gained independence and tried democracy
1. Nationalist (Kuomintang Party) rules – Sun Yat-sen leads
b. Sun Yat-sen steps down
1. Needs support of military
2. General Yuan Shikai takes over – becomes dictator
a. He dies in 1916 and China ruled by military until 1920s
c. After death, China reverts back to warlords and bandits
d. Three groups vying for power
1. Chinese Communist Party (CCP)
2. Nationalists (return from exile in Japan)
3. Japanese – taking over Manchuria and want more
E. Extreme forms of nationalism, ethnic hostility, religious fundamentalism
1. Economic tensions + diplomatic realignments
a. Leads to renewal of religious/ethnic tensions previous kept in control
2. Leads to
a. Extermist gov’t in Afghanistan
b. Rise of anti-immigrant sentiment in Europe
c. Right-wing extremists
d. neo-Nazi movements
e. Massacre of 800,000 Tutsis
f. Wars of separation in former Yugoslavia – Serbia – “ethnic cleansing”

V. Impact of Major Global Economic Developments
A. The Great Depression
1. Destroyed Europe and Latin America
a. Reliant on American loans to recover from war
b. Wave of bank failures has ripple effect around worlds’ banks
2. Less effect on Africa and Asia
a. Japan turns to military government – replaces civilian
b. Needed natural resources – searches out territories
3. International trade before WWII
a. Sparked wave of protectionism
1. Nations tried to shield industry and farms by imposing high tariffs
a. Hawley-Smoot Tariff Act – 1930
b. Spread Depression to Europe, L. America, Asia
c. Destroyed ability to export to United States
4. International Trade Before WWII
a. Trade had existed long before 20th century
b. Scope of trade grew between WWI and Great Depression
5. Causes of the global depression
a. overdependence on American loans and buying
b. Increase in tariffs and protectionism
c. Industrial and farming surpluses leading to deflation
d. Poor banking management
e. World War I
a. Expensive - $180 billion on war, $150 billion to rebuild
b. Capitalism financed war
c. Financial headquarters shifts from London to New York
i. US lent Europe tons of money
a. France in huge debt
i. Bolsheviks refuse to pay off war debts
ii. Germany owes French tons of money
b. Germany in huge debt – war + reparations
i. Borrows from US to pay French
ii. Problem…these loans could never be repaid
d. Stock Market crash, bank failures – no more credit to Europe
6. Impact
a. Political extremism
1. Communist say capitalism is a mess
2. Fascists want to protect enterprise and promote their nation
B. Technology
1. Move toward postindustrial economies
a. Less on manufacturing, more on service, information, computers
C. Post World War II Policies – assistance by the superpowers
1. Rebuilding Europe after WWII
a. Soviet Bloc – COMECON - Council for Mutual Economic Assistance
i. Economies nationalized/centrally planned
ii. Collectivization under state control
iii. Massive industrialization
iv. “socialist division of labor” – every nation focuses in a few areas
v. Soviet welfare systems
a. education, medical care, pensions
vi. Poor quality consuper goods
vii. Focus on heavy industry/weapons
viii. Maintained through political repression
b. Western Europe – Marshall Plan – European Recovery Plan
i. A “miracle” – helped prevent the spread of communism
ii. W. Germany rose from ruins – European economic powerhouse
iii. Technical innovation – move to postindustrial world
iv. Put into place social welfare systems
v. Created “third way” – blend of capitalism and social-welfare
c. Free trade key to economic prosperity – and world peace

i. FD Roosevelt – believed in John Maynard Keynes – Keynsian
ii. Nations that economically interacted less likely to go to war
iii. Met in Bretton Woods, New Hampshire
a. International Bank for Reconstruction and Development
i. World Bank
b. International Monetary Fund
iv. 1958 General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
v. USSR refused to join “Bretton Woods System”
a. They are cut off from world trade
vi. Currency exchanges fixed on US dollar > based on gold standard
d. Prosperity, modernization, recovery in Europe/Japan amazing
i. Western Europe develops economic unions to protect/build Europe
a. European Coal and Steel Community
b. European Economic Community
c. European Union
D. Pacific Rim
D. Multinational Corporations
1. International trade increases
2. Huge conglomerates though technically “from” a single country
a. Maintained factories, subsidiaries, distribution networks around the world
b. Employing foreign workers
c. Selling directly to foreign markets
3. Groundwork laid in 1980s and 1990s…but internet/communication/transporation made easier
4. Criticism
a. Exploiting regional labor
b. Harming regional environments
c. Preventing host economies from producing homegrown industries/mfg goods
E. Regional diplomatic alliances
1. European Union
a. Out with divisive nationalism, support for union
i. Enables Europe to boost economic strength
ii. Increase its diplomatic clout
iii. Work together to prevent war/political extremism
b. First steps – economic
i. 1952 – Six Nations – European Coal and Steel Company
a. Belgium, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Italy, France, W. Germ
ii. 1957 – Treaty of Rome – European Economic Community
a. Common Market
b. Eliminate internal tariffs
i. Encourage free movement of money, goods, services, labor
c. Gradually added Britain, Ireland, Denmark
d. 15 members by 1990s
e. Monetary union - Euro
2. Association of Southeast Asian Nations – ASEAN
a. Japan, Taiwan, South Korea, Indonesia, Singapore
b. Mostly diplomatic in nature, but tightened economic ties
3. 1991 – African Economic Community
a. Mimics many goals of European Union –see above
4. Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)
a. determines supply/demand
b. Most successful and influential international coalitions in history
c. Industrial Revolution huge boon to Middle East – sitting on 2/3 of oil
d. When they cut prices in 1970s – billions of extra dollars to accounts
i. Saudi Arabia uses to modernize infrastructure
e. Since 1970s, tough to keep in line, someone always breaks deal
i. Individual nations still have huge power
5. Soviet Union and allies and China remained relatively isolated
F. Economic Crisis – West in the 1970s
1. West in the 1970s
a. Energy shortages
i. Oil embargo of 1973 damaged economy
b. Recession
c. Unemployment
d. Slowdown of the West
e. Stagflation – rare combination of inflation and stagnation
2. Eastern Europe
a. Difficult transition from communism to capitalism
3. Devaluing of the U.S. Dollar
a. Detached money from gold standard > monetary instability
4. Eastern Bloc not killed by OPEC’s embargo, but…
a. Inefficiency
b. Food shortages
c. Cost of the arms race
d. Governmental corruption
5. 1971 – Nixon takes US off the gold standard
G. Economic Globalization During the 1990s
1. Causes
a. Chronologically/causally linked to fall of Soviet Union
b. Linked to democratization of the developing world
c. Explosion of computer technology/Internet activity
i. Electronic transfer of money
2. Group of Seven – G-7, then G-8
a. US, Canada, Great Britain, Japan, Germany, France, Italy, Russia
b. Meet more often
3. World Trade Organization (WTO) – regulates economic interaction of 100+ nation
4. Regional economic unions more important
a. North American Free Trade Agreement – NAFTA
b. Western Europe – Maastricht Treaty
i. Common monetary system
ii. Creation of single currency
iii. Establishment of European Central Bank
iv. Common policy making for
a. Immigration
b. Environmental protection
c. Foreign affairs and security issues
5. Benefits of Globalization
a. Created great wealth/led to prosperity
b. Free trade helps to preserve peace
6. Costs of Globalization
a. So interconnected – negative trend sin one region adversely affect world
b. Nations unwilling to turn of economic policies to WTO
c. Leads to constant state of change/economic instability
i. Seeking profits, corporations constantly moving to cheap production
a. Relocating to new city/country
i. Best tax benefits
ii. Most lenient environmental standards
iii. Cheapest labor
b. Negative effects
i. lowering of wages
ii. Sudden unemployment
iii. Social stress
d. Farmers can’t compete with cheap food from other countries
e. Homogenizing effects o nculture
i. Indigenous cultures crushed
ii. Replaced with foreign, American, pop culture and values
H. Major themes of 20th century economics
a. active commercial and trade interactions in every region
b. Great Depression – impact of decline of trade one region on others
i. National tariffs in US weakened global trade
c. Price/supply manipulations by oil-producing nations affect globe
d. After communism, more nations implement free-market economies
e. Regional trade associations organized to facilitate trade
f. Mass consumerism created truly global marketplace
I. Global trade by region
a. Middle East
i. 1960 OPEC founded to regulate oil prices, control distribution
ii. Southwest Asia joins international drug trade
b. Asia
i. 1920s – Japanese silk exports reduced – US synthetic fibres
ii. Interwar period – China prospered in global drug trade
a. Southeast Asian rubber exports damaged
b. Vietnam became one of leading rice exporters
i. But…monoculture left them hungry
iii. Japan’s regional empire supplies food/raw materials
iv. 1960s/1970s – Japanese electronics/cars cut into US market
v. 1970s – Korea produces cheap textiles, steel, automobiles
vi. 1970s – Taiwan joins global textile trade
iv. 1980s – Hong Kong exports clothing/heavy industry
vii. Singapore 4th largest port
viii. Indonesia exports exotic woods
ix. Korea exports automobiles, supertankers, electronics
c. Africa
i. After WWI, Africa has no money to purchase industrial goods
ii. South African miners prosper from gold/copper mines
iii. After WWII – rely on sale of minerals/cash crops
a. Constant fluctuation in prices hurts economic growth
iv. Nigeria – oil-producing country, member of OPEC
v. Africa exports native art
d. Europe
i. During WWI, Europe surrenders export dominance to US/Japan
ii. Eastern Europe remained agricultural, exported to W. Europe
iii. 1958 – European Economic Community (Common Market)
a. Reduces tariffs between
b. Common tariff policy for other world nations
c. Renamed European Union in 1990s
d. 2002 – member nations accept Euro
i. Britain the exception
e. Latin America
i. WWI/European trade brought prosperity to L. America
a. Forced import substitution industrialization
i. Have to make up for lack of European imports
ii. Great Depression kills export economy
iii. US Cuba’s leading trade partner till 1959 – fluctuation in world demand altered price
a. Cuba’s economy tied to USSR after Cuban Revolution
b. Economy falls apart after USSR dissolved
iv. Colombia major participant in international drug trade
v. Brazil exports exotic woods
vi. Venezuela – member of OPEC, Mexico produces oil
f. North America
i. WWI -= US becomes creditor nation, huge exports
ii. US exports reach the world
a. Food, wheat, corn, fast foods
iii. NAFTA – 1994 – abolished tariffs between US, Canada, Mexico
iv. 1999 – Seattle – demonstrators protest World Trade Organization
v. US + advertising led to worldwide diffusion of products/culture
VI. New Forces of Revolution
A. Revolution from the left and from the right
1. Cuban – Marxist left wing
a. Patterns of dictatorship and economic exploitation in Latin America
i. Liberation/modernization dependent on US
ii. Great Depression forced L. America economies to diversify
iii. WWII forced Interwar dictators out of power
iv. Reverted to exploitative economies/dictatorial control
v. Modernization merely put more wealth in upper class hands
vi. Military governments/right wing dictatorships
a. 1970s only Colombia, Venezuela, Costa Rica democratic
b. Dictatorship from other political spectrum – left – Fidel Castro
i. Overthrew right-wing dictator – Fulgencio Batista
ii. Nationalizes industry, carries out land reform
iii. Goals – modernize, industrialize, increase literacy, eliminate inequality
iv. Castro and Che Guevera wanted to combat US imperialism
v. Claimed to be Marxists – turned to USSR for assistance
2. Iranian – Extremist right wing
a. Most powerful dictatorships in Middle East – Iraq and Iran
b. Since 1920s, ruled by secular Phalavi shahs
i. Last shah ruled from 1941-1979 - Mohammad Reza Pahlavi
ii. Used oil wealth to industrialize/modernize
iii. Opposed Islamic traditionalism
a. Encouraged Western dress, education
b. No veil on women
c. Eradication of sharia – Islamic law
iv. Ally of the United States
v. Relied on repression to maintain order
a. Regime anti-democratic
b. Middle class opposed shah’s authoritarian/repressive rule
c. Ayatollah’s – religious teachers – oppose secular views
c. Enter Shiite cleric Ayatollah Khomeini
i. Islamic fundamentalist exiled by the Shah
ii. Iranian Revolution turned nation into anti-Western (U.S.)
iii. Theocratic dictatorship
iv. Held American hostages for a number of months
v. Went to war with Iraq from 1980-1988
d. Khomeini died 1989 – theocracy still exists
3. The People’s Republic of China
a. China and the Second Revolution
i. China on winning side of both wars, but…no country suffered more
a. May Fourth Movement 1919
i. Attempt to create a liberal democracy in China
b. 1920s fragmented into series of warlord states
c. When Sun Yat Sen died, Chiang Kai Shek took over
i. At first communists / Chiang Kai Shek work together
ii. Then Nationalists execute communists > civil war
ii. Communists retreat to the north to regroup
iii. W/ Japanese invasion Communists/Nationalists “work together”
iv. After WWII, coalition gov’t encouraged
a. But…Communists win in 1949
b. Chiang Kai Shek goes to Taiwan to regroup – sound familiar
v. US supports KMT – Nationalist Kuomintang in Taiwan
vi. USSR supports CCP – Chinese Communist Party
a. Most populous communist nation on earth for five decades
b. Mao – questionable communist leanings
i. At first, appeared to want to take pragmatic social/political reform
ii. New Democracy and land reform of 1950s greeted positively
a. Collectivization – first Five-Year Plan – relatively successful
1. Relatively humane
iii. But…he is repressive
a. Refuses to let Inner Mongolia secession
c. But…then he gets nutty
i. Perversely grotesque persecution of dissenters, class enemies
ii. Too fast end of 1950s w/ industrialization/collectivization
iii. Great Leap Forward – 1958
a. Collectivization and industrialization too fast
1. Good job – lack of initiative/decrease in production
b. Crops fail/chaos in industrial sector
1. 15 million die
c. Industrialize at the local level – small-scale peasant projects
d. Led to division of CCP
e. Fortunately it was stopped in 1960
d. Then he gets nuttier
i. Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution of 1966
a. Method of attacking political enemies
b. Absolute revolutionary purity
1. Little Red Book – only version of wisdom
a. Mao’s sayings
c. Young communists put anyone questionable on trial
1. professors, foremen, farm heads, writers, politicians
2. Victims demoted, harassed, “reeducated”
d. Attacked members of CCO
e. Finally Mao dies and Deng Xiaoping defeats “Gang of Four”
i. Mao’s widow plus allies
f. 1976> - Deng Xiaoping discontinues collective farming
i. Lets Western influence in
ii. But does not permit democratic reform – Tiananmen Square - 1989
g. Comparing Dynastic China to Communist China
i. 2000 years class structure and Confucianism dominated China
a. Communism – all traces of class structure erased
ii. Traditional society – valued large families
a. Help on farm
b. Identity based on relation to other family figures
c. Communists – abortion and birth control
1. Some refused
2. Others infanticide
iii. Collectivization destroyed old relations
a. no need for family labor
b. Communists don’t want competition w/ state authority
c. Women advance
1. Husbands and wives treated equal by law
2. Women can divorce husbands
3. Property rights, equal pay for equal work
4. Encouraged to pursue professional/vocational

VII. Sources of Political Innovations
A. Democratization
1. Expansion of popular representation
a. Women allowed to vote in Western nations then worldwide
B. Interwar years
1. Democracies weak
2. Totalitarian dictatorships most dynamic
a. Control as many aspects of citizen’s lives as possible
3. Waning of democracy in interwar Europe
a. After WWI, 23 govts democratic, by 1939 – only 12
b. Fell victim to political extremism
i. Stress of Great Depression – mass unemployment/inflation
c. Replaced with right wing dictatorships
d. Ethnic discrimination/blame
e. Class tensions
f. France and Britain struggling
i. Financially strapped due to WWI
ii. Need loans from US and reparations from Germany to survive
iii. Leads to unemployment, strikes, and deficits
iv. No one political party can offer leadership
a. France – frequent elections – power goes from left to right
3. Strongest and most dynamic governments were dictatorships
4. Fascism – destroy will of the individual for the sake of “the people”
a. Italy – revolution came from the right
i. Plagued by depression, political turmoil, threat of communism
a. Constant strikes, turnover in government
ii. Middle and upper class afraid of left-wing revolution
a. Need a strong leader
iii. Enter anti-communist, Fascist Benito Mussolini
a. Fascism – revolution from the right, right-wing radicalism
i. Doesn’t prevent change, brings about change
ii. Anticommunist, anticapitalist, antidemocratic
iii. Hypernationalism
iv. State-sponsored racial/ethnic bigotry
v. Democracy weak and ineffective
vi. Blackshirts – paid paramilitary
a. Fight socialist/communist organizations
b. Mussolini convinced King Victor Emmannuel to appoint
i. Had Blackshirts march to Rome – looks intimidating
ii. King timid man – afraid to call in military
iii. Faced financial problems
iv. Maybe financial plans would work
iv. New form of government – totalitarianism
a. Uses modern technology, bureaucracy to control everyone
b. Mussolini mild compared to Hitler/Stalin
c. Imposed censorship, controlled culture
d. Put dissidents in prison
e. Propaganda to create cult of personality – larger than life
v. Attempts to modernize Italy
a. Built modern highways
b. Sponsored literacy
c. Fought Mafia
d. Brought medicine/technology to backwards parts
e. Made inefficient trains run on time
vi. Syndicalism – state-sponsored capitalism w/ no unions
a. Corporate leaders must cooperate with government
vii. Many actually thought he was successful
viii. Depression made it hard to be dictatorial and successful
a. Also…started adopting some of Hitler’s methods
i. Master becomes the student
ix. Unite people to nationalistic cause – invades North Africa
b. Germany
i. Causes
a. Governed by democratic regime – Weimar Republic
b. Hyperinflation – wiped out value of German mark
c. Burden of war payments
d. Resentment of the Treaty of Versailles
e. Crushed national pride
f. Rise of extremist national parties
i. Communist Party – left
ii. The Nazi Party
a. anticommunist, antidemocratic
b. Imitated Italian fascism
c. Obsessed with racial purity
i. Hated all minorities, especially subhuman Jews
d. Tried and failed to take over in 1923 – Beerhall Putcsh
i. Hitler writed Mein Kampf in jail
iii. Effect of the Depression
a. 6 million – 40% unemployed
b. Political boost to extremist parties
i. Weimar Republic can’t govern conservatively
c. Nazi Party becomes largest party in 1932
i. Convinces Hindenberg to appoint him chancellor
iv. Hitler
a. Uses burning of Reichstag building to justify war powers
i. Enabling Act – March 1933
a. Suspended Weimar Constitution for 4 years
b. Actions as dictator
i. Outlaws all political parties
ii. Took control of the press
iii. Banned labor unions
iv. System of state capitalism
v. Built concentration camps for opponents/dissidents
vi. Established secret police – Gestapo
vii. Ended unemployment
a. Public works projects/highways
b. Arms production
viii. Act against Jews – “undesirables”
a. Forced out of professions
i. law, civil service,university
b. Businesses boycotted
c. Nuremberg Laws – 1935
i. Stripped of citizenship
ii. Forbade marriage/sex – Jews/non
5. Totalitarianism on the Right and the Left
i. Russian Marxist revolution and communism scared the bejeepers
a. Groups of reactionary men organized to fight its spread
ii. Stalinism – Soviet communism
a. Centralized control of the economy
b. World leadership of international communist movement
c. Forced collectivization of all farming
d. promotion of atheism and control of organized religion
iii. Features of totalitarianism
a. single leader with unquestioned authority
b. single party in charge of all of government
c. creation of police state to terrorize/control
d. aggressive elimination of all opposition groups
C. Primary form of organization becomes democratic state + capitalism
D. Comparing Fascism and Totalitarianism
1. Fascism vs. communism
a. Fascists don’t want to eliminate private property, class distinctions
b. Pushed for another identity – extreme nationalism based on racial identity
2. Fascism is subset of totalitarianism
a. Totalitarian dictator rules absolutely
b. Fascists type of totalitarian rule
i. Right wing
ii. Rely on traditional institutions/social distinctions to enforce rule
iii. Extreme nationalism based on racism
3. Communism
a. Extreme left-wing
b. Seek to destroy traditional institutions and class distinctions
i. But they want to retain power for themselves
c. Not fascist, but just as militaristic and controlling
4. Both use same tactics - totalitarianism
E. Number of regimes try communism
1. Communist economy
2. Dictatorial political system
3. Communism in the Soviet Union
a. Initially moderate parliament Provisional Government took over
i. Tried to set up democratic state – looked like French Revolution
ii. Alexander Kerensky – provisional government
a. Ineffective – shared power with local soviets
i. Soviets represented views of workers, peasants, soldie
b. Also…wanted to continue war against Germany
i. Peasants want to end the suffering of the war
c. Too idealistic, didn’t gauge Russian people
d. Did affirm natural rights – religious toleration, equality of cit
b. But…Bolshevik Party promised land reform, economic stability, and peace
i. Fought war of Bolsheviks (Communists) Reds vs. Whites (anti-com)
ii. Vladimir Lenin – April Theses – peace, land, power to soviets
iii. Lenin pulls out of WWI – Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
a. Western Russia to Germany for cease fire
iv. Counterrevolutionary revolts across Russia
a. Bolsheviks must fight nonstop skirmishes for 3 years
i. Trotsky’s Red Army vs. the Whites
b. Results of civil war
i. West supported counterrevolutionaries = mistrust
ii. Bolsheviks now had a very powerful Red Army
c. Lenin tries to modernize Soviet Union in Marxist fashion
i. Problem…USSR not a capitalist gov’t – can’t seize factories
a. Tries to nationalize assets/industries
ii. Initial programs actually result in decline
iii. Institutes New Economic Policy (NEP)
a. Permitted some private ownership
i. Led to increase in productivity
iv. Organized into a series of socialist republics under central gov’t
a. 1923 renamed Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
d. Stalin takes over power – beats out Trotsky
i. Hyper modernizes through Five-Year Plans
a. Collectivization of agriculture – all peasants > state-run farm
i. Huge collective farms worked by common farmers
ii. Farmers share the proceeds
iii. Millions of kulaks – peasants with more land
a. Executed or deported
b. Government controls countryside
c. Money used to finance industrialization
a. Five Year Plans successful
b. Focus on heavy industry
ii. Negatives of collectivization
a. famine – lack of worker initiative
b. Became Great Purges – Stalin becomes paranoid
i. Expulsion/execution of rivals
c. Perceived dissidents sent to work camps – gulags
iii. Uses propaganda to glorify himself, mind-control nation
e. Does the end justify the means?
4. Communism in China
a. Nationalists vs. Communists
i. Early 1920s – Nationalist-Communist alliance drives out warlords
a. Nationalists – Chiang Kai-shek
b. Communists – Mao Tse-tung
ii. While Mao leads Long March north, Chiang consolidates power
a. Founds Nanjing Republic
i. Combination of Westernization and authoritarianism
ii. Sun’s Three People’s Principles
iii. Attempted constitutional gov’t, industrial economy
b. Impossible to be successful with
i. Backwardness
ii. Threat of Japanese imperialism
iii. Warlord anarchy
c. Mao makes Communism attractive to peasants
E. Third World nations experiment w/ variety of governments
1. Dictatorship in Latin America
a. Outside Influences on Latin America
i. Prior to WWI, politically independent, but economically dependent
a. US/Western investors controlled enterprises
b. Economies based on export of 1 or 2 products – monoculture
i. Chile – fertilizer, copper
ii. Mexico, Bolivia, Argentina, Peru – oil
iii. Argentina – beef
iv. Caribbean/Brazil – sugar
v. Brazil – 75% of world’s coffee
ii. Foreigners allowed influence on local politics
a. In exchange for capital and industrial knowledge
b. Mass of population did work, but didn’t benefit
b. The United States in Latin America
i. France/Britain can’t invest in L. America, US can
ii. US views L. America as they’re sphere of influence
iii. To what extent did they control
a. Gained territory – Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands
b. Military presence – Panama
c. Sponsored dictators for order – Venezuela, Cuba
iv. Good Neighbor Policy – Roosevelt – reduce US role
a. Even pulled troops from Haiti – no troops in L. Amer
c. Great Depression effects
i. US inability to purchase exports killed L. America
a. Remember they’re monoculture – dependent on exports
ii. Economic problems had negative effect on politics
iii. Long standing tradition of authoritarian rule
a. Few if any genuine democracies in 1920s/1930s
b. Mexico, Brazil, Argentina – all turn dictator
d. Mexico
i. Been in chaos since Benito Juarez died in 1872
ii. Rebels like Ponsho Villa and Emiliana Zapata fight dictator
a. US helped but down rebels – tired of their raids
iii. Institutional Revolutionary Party – name not accurate
a. Granted suffrage and right to strike
b. But…actually ruled by an oligarchy that chose president
c. Upper class prospers, country modernizes
d. But…middle class small…lower class huge
iv. Lazaro Cardenas – president 1934
a. Redistributes 40 million acres – land reform
b. Nationalized oil industry – took from US
i. Roosevelt did nothing – he’s a Good Neighbor
ii. Mexico pays US then forms – PEMEX
v. Mexico emerges from revolution with one party system
a. PRI – Partido Revolucionario Institucional
i. Dominated politics for 70 years
e. Brazil
i. Before 1930, nation run by wealthy coffee growers
a. Depression killed coffee industry
ii. 1930 Getulio Vargas takes over – mimics Fascist Italy/Germany
a. Censored press
b. Tortured political opponents
c. Modernized Brazilian economy
i. Diversified and freed from coffee reliance
ii. Brazil becomes L. America’s most industrialized nat
d.Army forces out in 1945
f. Argentina
i. 1916 – Radical Party – Hipolito Irigoyen – labor party
a. Reforms benefit peasants
b. Labor unions become more active
ii. Landowners, upper class + military overthrow him in 1930
a. Military tries to return to export-based economy
b. Labor unrest increases – descamisados – “shirtless ones”
iii. After WWII – Evan and Juan Peron take over – appeal to lower
a. Raised the salaries of the working class
b. Government controlled press, denied civil liberties
c. Ruled by military dictators after Peron

F. Militarism in Japan
1. Early 1920s Japan looks like its heading toward parliamentary capitalism
a. Power of Diet increases
b. Political parties more active/relevant
c. Universal male suffrage
d. Bill of rights
e. Less censoring of media
f. Economy continued to industrialize/modernize
2. But…traditional forces still exist
a. Upper classes maintains system of oligarchy
b. Nationalism runs high
c. Industrialization concentrated in small group of zaibatsu
a. Four largest (Mitsubishi) controlled a ton
a. 21% banking, 35% shipbuilding, 21% mining
b. Wealth doesn’t benefit masses – controlled by elite few
c. Direct link to government – government has vested interest
a. Looks a bit like Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany
3. Militarism and Invasion of Asia
a. Major cause – Great Depression
a. Exports drop 50%
b. Nationalism skyrocketed, anti-Westernism grew
b. Rise of Nationalism
a. Kita Ikki – celebrity – right wing nationalist
i. “Asia for Asians” – kick out Europeans
c. Takes over Manchuria – Manchukuo
a. Install Henry Pu-yi – remember him – last emperor of China
d. Japan withdraws from League of Nations
e. Prime Minister assassinated
f. Emperor Hirohito controlled by military
g. War starts in 1937 – New Order – Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere
a. Attacked in full force
b. Committed dreadful atrocities
i. “Rape of Nanjing” – 200,000 > 300,000 women/children
c. Then push to Southeast Asia – push out French and British
G. Rebuilding Europe after WWII
a. Soviet Bloc – COMECON - Council for Mutual Economic Assistance
i. Economies nationalized/centrally planned
ii. Collectivization under state control
iii. Massive industrialization
iv. “socialist division of labor” – every nation focuses in a few areas
v. Soviet welfare systems
a. education, medical care, pensions
vi. Poor quality consuper goods
vii. Focus on heavy industry/weapons
viii. Maintained through political repression
b. Western Europe – Marshall Plan – European Recovery Plan
i. A “miracle” – helped prevent the spread of communism
ii. W. Germany rose from ruins – European economic powerhouse
iii. Technical innovation – move to postindustrial world
iv. Put into place social welfare systems
v. Created “third way” – blend of capitalism and social-welfare
vi. But…problems
a. Germany refuses initially to acknowledge Holocaust
b. French corrupt leaders, protests leads to 1968 revolution
c. Mild authoritarian regimes continue Spain, Portugal, Greece
H. Israel creates unique form of democracy
a. Militaristic state run democratically that is huge human rights violator
b. Must be violent toward poorly armed and minors to ensure security
I. Authoritarianism and Dictatorship
a. Latin America
b. Middle East
i. Monarchies – Morocco, Jordan, Saudi Arabia
ii. Dictatorships – Syria, Lybia, Iraq
iii. Egypt/Turkey – need to combat Islamic extremism
a. Heaviness of governmental control
1. Elections not completely open
2. Civil rights constrained
3. Media not entirely free
4. Israel democracy compromised by harshness in putting down Palestinians
G. Southeast Asia after World War II
A. Overview
a. British gave up colonies relatively easily
i. Malaysia, Singapore, Burma, Hong Kong
b. French/Dutch a little hesitant
c. Militarism/authoritarianism dominant method of rule
i. Cambodia
a. Khmer Rouge – took power tried reverse industrialization
b. Killed 2 million people, devastated economy, politics
ii. Philippines
a. Ferdinand Marcos
i. US backed
ii. Violated civil rights, extraordinarily corrupt
iii. South Korea ruled similarly to Philippines
iv. Myanmar and Thailand came under military rule
v. Singapore
a. Prime Minister Lee Kuan Yew
i. Pushes for conformity and tradition
ii. Devalues freedom and civil liberties
B. Indonesia
a. After WWII, Netherlands controlled Dutch East Indies – Indonesia
b. Charismatic leader of Indonesian Nationalist Party
i. Led war of liberation in 1945
ii. Afraid of Communist takeover, US convinced Dutch to give up
c. New nation has diversity issues
i. One of largest in world – linguistically, ethnically, religiously diff
d. Tried governing democratically, but…too many groups
e. Turned to authoritarian
i. 1950s dissolved constitution for “Guided Democracy”
ii. Started to align himself with Communists
iii. 1965 army + Conservative Muslims overthrew Sukarno
i. 500,000 killed – mostly Communists
ii. Sukarno eventually forced out of office
f. 1967-1998 – military strongman General Suharto ruled
i. Dictator with frequent human-rights abuses
ii. Focuses
i. Economic growth
ii. Anticommunism
iii. Alliance with the United States
C. Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia
a. France tried to hold on for a decade after WWII
b. Ho Chi Minh thinks he can gain independence
i. Saw how US supported Philippines
ii. Proved himself against Japanese in WWII
i. Vietnamese nationalism from under Marxist-taught Ho
ii. 1945 – Ho Chi Minh writes Declaration of Independence
iii. But…US supports France
i. Important to make them happy – Germany more important
c. Ho Chi Minh fights French w/ US backing
i. Humiliated at Dien Bien Phu
ii. France wants out – signs treaty at Geneva Conference – 1954
i. Nations of Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam created
a. Vietnam divided north/south – elections in a 2 years
d. Ho Chi Minh thinks he’s getting an election – 2 years comes and passes
i. South Vietnamese leader Ngo Dinh Diem refuses elections
i. He’d lose – he’s Catholic, US puppet (kindof)
ii. Ho Chi Minh had enough – moves South
i. Viet Minh in the North
ii. Viet Cong communist resistance in the South
e. US supports South for years, but its useless
i. Guerilla warfare too successful vs. conventional
ii. Doesn’t have support of the masses
iii. Peasants hate South Vietnamese government
i. US arranges for Ngo Dinh Diem’s overthrow
iv. US realizes they have no chance after Tet Offensive – 1968
i. Gradually start pulling out
f. 1975 Communist backed Ho Chi Minh captures South and unifies country
i. Laos and Cambodia also fall to communists

VIII. Social reform and social revolution
A. Four basic tracks of 20th century changes
1. Western Europe, United States, Canada – the West
a. Stable democratization
b. Economic prosperity
c. Thorough urbanization
d. Commitment to social equality
e. Creation of social welfare systems
f. Scientific/technological achievements tremendous
g. Postindustrial economies that emphasize services, consumerism, cutting-edge technology
2. The Tigers – prosperous nations in Asia – Japan, Taiwan, South Korea, Indonesia, Singapore
a. Economic and technical modernization
b. Urbanized greatly
c. High degree/variety of social services
d. Economies post-industrial and high-tech
e. Japan equaled or surpassed the West
f. Nominally democratic
g. Slow to embrace/tolerate diversity and individualism
3. Soviet Union and Eastern Europe
a. Modernized economically, especially post WWII
b. Urbanized and developed social welfare services
c. Technological and scientific advancement
d. Remained industrial – didn’t move to postindustrial
e. Technological finesse – computers – cruder than West
f. Political systems dictatorial and repressive
g. After communism, difficult to move toward democracy/economic propser
4. Developing nations – Asia, Africa, Middle East, Latin America
a. Trying to attain advanced economic systems
b. Considering representative government
c. Some have made great progress
d. Others mired in backwardness, poverty, civil war, dictatorship
e. Most between two extremes
f. People’s Republic of China the anomaly
i. Geography, population, military capacity of major power
ii. Strong economy – growing fast
iii. Government authoritarian, social and economic progress uneven
iv. Technological and scientific achievement inconsistent

B. Changing gender roles
1. Men
a. As women take new workplace roles, men now judged for parenting
b. “Mr. Mom” pheonomenon – stay at home dad unprecedented
2. Women
a. Rise of feminism (women’s liberation)
1. 1960s and 1970s women’s liberation and equal rights
2. More than just legal equality and right to vote
3. Full cultural and economic equality
4. Create more positive climate for equal gender relations
b. Suffrage
1. End of 19th century, beginning of 20th century
2. Large #s given right to vote after WWI
a. Large numbers of women move into workplace
3. Greater # of women work during WWII
a. Women serve in armed forces
c. Reliable contraception
1. Unprecedented control of pregnancy
d. Non-Western world – progress of woman uneven
e. Most important change of 20th century – affects ½ world population
1. Progress mostly in Western world
f. History of feminism
1. American and European suffragettes date back to 1800s
a. But…only Finland, Norway, some US states had suffrage
before WWI
b. Also fighting for access to colleges and universities
2. WWI and Interwar Period
a. Large # of middle class women to the workplace
i. Lower class women had worked their since Industrialization
ii. Gave credibility of equal rights
b. After WWI suffrage in
i. Russia, Sweden, Britain, Germany, Poland
ii. Hungary, Austria, Czechoslovakia, US
a. Italy and France holding out till after WWII
c. Women gain tons of social freedoms in the West
i. Flappers test boundaries
ii. Jazz Age – fashions and popular culture
iii. New image of women free from traditional
gender roles
iv. Movies created world-famous sex symbols
3. WWII and the effect on women
a. Symbol of “Rosie the Riveter” exaggerated, but women went
to work in great #s in US
b. In Russia 40% of workforce women
c. Permanently cemented place of women in working world
4. 1940s and 1950s
a. Women had greater role in workplace, but…
b. Sphere of influence still homemaker, childbearer, caregiver
c. Those who worked suffered from:
i. sexual harassment, unequal wages
ii. No access to leadership roles
5. Feminism and “Women’s Lib” 1960s and 1970s
a. Women’s liberation
b. Literature
i. Betty Friedan – The Feminine Mystique
ii. Simone de Beauvoir’s - The Second Sex
c. Want to achieve equality
d. Eliminate stereotypes about women as “weaker sex”
e. Some of the issues they wanted
i. Better pay, access to leadership roles
ii. Higher education, women’s athletics
iii. Right to birth control/abortion
iv. Right to divorce
v. Greater role in political life
6. Contemporary gender issues
a. Informal discrimination and sexual harassment
b. “glass ceiling” – still lacking access to highest jobs
c. Secondary/traditional roles in non-Western world
i. Traditional issues constrain women
a. Conservative Catholicism
b. Islamic fundamentalism
c. machismo
d. view of women as inferior/property
ii. Taliban takes it to extreme
a. Punishes for talking in public w/ man
b. Massively restricts interaction
7. Female heads of state possible
a. India, Great Britain, Philippines
b. Politics not all male, but…these examples rare
8. Treatment of women depended on revolution
a. Iran conservative revolution – reversed progress
a. Under Shah – Iranian women had made progress
i. Western-style rights/education
B. Family structures
C. Peasant Protest
D. International Marxism
E. Basic features of Western Societies
1. Elimination of distinctions between social classes
2. Aristocratic class replaced by white collar class through meritocracy
3. Large, stable middle class
4. Lower classes have access to minimum standard of living
5. Urbanization > suburbanization
6. Social welfare system – unemployment insurance, pension, health care
7. Universal education
8. Equal political rights for all adults – men and women
9. Equal treatment of all citizens under the law
10. Equal treatment for minorities
11. Participation of NGOs, nongovernmental organizations, civil society
a. Pressure government to set policy
b. Pressure implementing of policy
c. Provide social services to needy
F. Standard of living disparity – West vs. Developing World
1. “north-south split” – most of world’s advanced, postindustrial societies north
2. Gap causes problems
a. Diplomatic friction
b. Interferes with smooth/equitable globalization
c. perpetuates tremendous socioeconomic inequality
3. Small number of people in developed nations have disproportionate power
a. Possess majority of world’s wealth
b. Use up bulk of world’s resources
c. Eat massive share of world’s food
d. Responsible for most of world’s energy consumption
e. Responsible for most of world’s pollution

IX. Globalization
A. Science and technology
1. Advancement coming at breathtaking pace
a. Innovative physics, biotechnology, rocketry, electronics, computers
1. Physics
a. Albert Einstein – theory of relativity
b. Quantum physics
c. Atomic theory
d. Altered understanding of astronomy
e. Led to atomic weaponry/nuclear energy
2. Rocketry/space science
a. German scientists initiated research – missiles
b. Nuclear arms race sped up research
c. Led to satellite communication
3. Computer
a. Most significant postwar invention
b. Computers and components – microchips altered a ton
c. How people communicate, transact business, analyze data
d. Keep records, perform medical procedures
e. But…with ease of usage…privacy becomes an issue
4. Internet
a. Originally – 1960s – method of integrating gov’t, business and academic computers
b. WWW > “global village”
c. “digital divide” those with computer technology vs. w/out
b. Biotechnology and genetic science
1. DNA – James Watson and Francis Crick – 1953
2. Unprecedented gains – how human body works
3. Genetic theory led to medical advances
4. Power to clone human beings – controversial
2. Full industrialization – world moved to petroleum/electricity primary energy
3. Instant network becomes catalyst for international integration
a. Boundaries of civilization not as clear – easy to surpass
b. Able to link people with common interests, but geographically separated

B. Culture
1. Interactions between elite and popular culture and art
2. Might make nation-state fade away
3. Mass media/mass communications transform cultural sphere
a. Now cinema, radio, television, electronic media make art
b. Used to make music, literature, art for popular audience
c. Inexpensive production of mass quantity of books, tv, music, drama
1. Brought to more people than ever before
d. But...
1. Art dumbed down to satisfy taste of the masses
2. Media used for propaganda, brain-washing
a. Political or marketing purposes
e. Westernize the pop culture of entire world
1. American Jass and Hollywood alluring
2. Disney, McDonald’s, Coca-Cola – recognizable all over world
f. Technology made cultural exchange possible
1. CDs, records, tapes
a. Teenagers in 1960s could buy music from around world
4. Bold experimentation
a. Distortion/abandonment of traditional norms
5. First 2/3 of century – pessimistic/uncertainty
a. Optimism of 1800s replaced, especially after WWI
b. Literature deals w/ dehumanization of industrial world
c. Stream of consciousness prose – abstract mind
d. abstract painters distort reality – Picasso anyone
e. Surrealists – realistic objects in unrealistic situations
f. Existententialism – you’re on your own – no deity
6. Today – exuberance/energy of pop culture
7. Postmodern Art
8. Computers/Internet lead to information revolution
9. Ease of travel – jet engines – able to explore other cultures
10. Art and Literature in the Non-Western world
a. non-western artists adapt, modify and add native elements to western form
b. Artists oftentimes speak for the people/illustrate their plight
1. Digeo Rivera – Mexico – urban poor in paintings
2. Lu Xun – China – gov’t fails to take care of poor/fight off foreigners
3. Rabindranath Tagore – Hindu religious concepts
c. Common themes
1. Problems of decolonization, resisting US cultural hegemony
2. Political opposition to oppressive regime
3. Some even criticize Islamic conservatism – dangerous idea
11. After WWI
a. Mass consumerism – especially household appliances, automobiles
1. Automobile decreased isolation – created teenage years
b. Women turned to shorter skirts, hairstyles, free behavior expression
c. Movie industry – artistic expression + entertainment
d. Art – new style cubism
e. Architecture – new uses of concrete and glass
f. New skepticism
12. After WWII
a. Women – higher divorce, effective birth control, NOW founded
b. 1960s – Civil rights US plus anti-war movement
c. 1970s and 1980s – people questioned welfare state
1. Programs decreased
2. Economic/educational opportunities spread
13. Culture around the world
a. Soviet Union
1. Soviet schools taught religion as myth, western style as decadent
2. Factories made heavy goods, not consumer goods
3. Spreading industrialization led to increase in movies, sports, TV
4. 1960s West and Soviets exchange culture
5. USSR focuses on sports and kills everybody at Olympics
b. Japan
1. In 1920s experienced mass consumerism
2. After WWII, women’s suffrage no more Shintoism national religion
3. Social security for elderly
4. After US occupation, gov’t takes over control of student textbooks
5. Traditions such as tea ceremony, Kabuki, No theater continue
6. Work schedules – less leisure time than US
a. But…baseball becomes popular
c. China
1. After May Fourth Movement – women get more rights
a. Footbinding outlawed
b. Wider educational/career opportunities
2. Guomindang tries to reduce role of women
3. Communists give women larger role in revolution
a. Women can bear arms
b. Since 1949 – women expected to work outside of home also
d. Latin America
1. After Mexican Revolution – murals became big – Diego Rivera
a. Scenes from revolutions blended with folk culture
2. Majority Catholic, but Protestant denominations spread
3. Women retain their traditional role
a. By end of 20th century, women controlled small businesses
b. Become active in politics
e. Africa
1. Women get suffrage in new constitutions
a. Some even given political positions – reward for role
2. Early marriage continued
f. Global Culture
1. Western dominated global culture
a. Produced disapproval in East Asian/Islamic cultures
2. English language of commerce/Internet
3. Western appreciation for science spread
4. Higher emphasis on monetary wealth, education, profession
a. Not so much on land ownership/inherited position
5. But…some traditions continue
a. India still holds to caste restrictions
b. Women suffrage widespread, patriarchal societies exist
6. Global culture still has regional traditions/characteristics
C. Patterns of Resistance
1. Religious Responses
2. Huge conflict between forces of traditionalism vs. forces of change
a. China – 1919
i. Gov’t wants to revert to traditional Confucian values
ii. Students want democracy, technology, science
iii. Stage protests – Tiananmen Square – Beijing
a. May Fourth Movement – because Japan annexed China

X. Demographic and environmental changes
A. Migrations
1. Forced migration due to Peace of Paris
a.Turks moved back to Turkey from Southeastern Europe
b. Greeks moved back to Greece from Ottoman Empire
1. Latin America
a. Massive Urbanization
b. Immigration w/in and to US – legal and illegal
2. Massive immigration
3. Limited immigration at times
a. US puts quotas on immigrants in 1920s
4. Refugees displaced during WWII
a. Nazis then communists push West
5. Pull factors
a. Economic opportunity
b. Political repression
c. Local violence – (often caused by Cold War policies)
6. Breakup of empires
a. Former colonial subjects migrated
7. Guest workers to Europe from middle east – 15 million
8. Collapse of communism led to massive migration from Eastern Europe
9. Benefits
a. Much-needed labor force
b. Enriches diversity of nation
10. Negatives
a. Stirs up xenophobia – nativist movements
i. Especially when economy is tight
11. War years
a. WWI - Death of 10 million Europeans – generation of men
i. European women remain unmarried
ii. Lowered European birth rate
iii. Lowered population growth for future generations
iv. Bombings/troop movements destroyed cities, industry, agriculture
b. WWII – killed another 35 million
i. boundary changes – hundreds of thousands of refugees
12. Postwar population changes
a. Labor shortages – Western Europe seeks workers from outside
i. “guest workers” came from W. Indies, N. Africa, Turkey, Pakistan
a. Low wages, discrimination
b. Labor not needed later
ii. US opens door to L. America/Asian immigrants
b. Soviet Union – Muslim population growth threatened Russian culture
i. Industrialization severely polluted half rivers, endangered farms
ii. Responsible for respiratory diseases and infant mortality
13. Migration patterns
a. 1980s – South Korea highest population density in the world
b. Japan addressed increasing population w/ birth control/abortion
c. Latin America – population explosion plus urbanization
i. Newcomers live in shanty towns outside urban areas
ii. Sometimes settlements incorporated into city
iii. Migration huge seeking employment
iv. Migration to US to escape political oppression and warfare
d. Divisions of countries
i. Partition of Pakistan and India – hundreds of thousands displaced
ii. Arab-Israeli War – 1948 – hundreds of thousands Palestinians
iii. Africa and Balkans warfare/boundary changes = refugees
e. Migration from South Asia/Arab to oil-producing nations
14. Population growth
a. Religious/cultural forbidding birth control
b. Eradicate disease
c. Improve sanitation
d. Better diets

B. Changes in birthrates
1. Population Growth
a. 1900 – 1.6 billion to 2000 – 6 billion
i. Developed world – population growth tended to decline
ii. Developing world – population explosion
b. However, overconsumption of food/energy/waste/pollution still comes
from developed world
C. Changes in death rates
D. New forms of urbanization
1. Latin America
a. urbanized peasants fail to have access to industry
E. Threats to the environment
1. Deforestation
a. Issue between developed and developing nations
i. Developing say they need resources to spur economy
ii. Environmentalists want to save for all people – Amazon
b. But…hypocritical because global warming/acid rain from developed nation
2. Global warming
3. Acid rain
4. Warfare
a. US chemical warfare in South Vietnam
b. Saddam Hussein – spilled oil into Persian Gulf, oil fields on fire
F. Green/environmental movements
1. Social activism and the rise of nongovernmental organizations – NGOs
a. Demonstrations, protests, strikes
b. Social movements, student groups lobbied and protested
c. Most famous – 1960s
i. Protested Vietnam War, Civil Rights in the US
ii. Temporary reform in Czechoslovakia
iii. Loosening PRI’s control of Mexico
d. Key role in peace movements, anti-nuclear arms movements
e. Women’s liberation, environmental
2. Environmentalism/conservatism always around
a. Post-World War II gained prominence
i. Pollution and industrialization threat to ecological well-being
ii. Literature – Silent Spring – 1962 – dangers of pesticides – DDT
b. Earth Day popularized movement
c. NGOs – Greenpeace and World Wildlife Fund – famous/influential
d. “Green Parties” – have more political power in Europe
3. Green Revolution
a. Increased crop yields – high-yield, disease resistant crops
i. Also fertilizers, pesticides, efficient irrigation
b. Controversy – use of pesticides/fertilizer that cause cancer
i. Only available to wealthy landowners
4. Reactions to environmental/population issues
a. Egypt – Presiden Nasser – Aswan Dam
i. More farmland, but – blindness, salt in soil, lose Nile silt
b. China – policies to limit family size
i. One child per family
ii. But infanticide, abortion, sterilization
iii. Family members hide children in rulral areas
c. Identified chemicals that cause ozone depletion
i. Anti-pollution devices in cars, planes, industrial smokestacks
G. Terrorism
1. Since WWI – Gabrio Princip – political desires sought through terrorism
a. Palestinian Liberation Organization
b. Irish Republican Army
c. Red Brigades
d. anti-Israelis – Hamas and Hezbollah
2. Osama bin Laden takes it to an all new level

XI. Diverse interpretations
A. Is cultural convergence or diversity the best model for understanding increased intercultural contact in the twentieth century?
1. Cultural convergence
a. Scientific Revolution, Enlightenment, Industrial Revolution all move toward globalization
b, Led to certain ways of thinking attractive and accepted by different people
i. People agreed on how universe/government organized
c. Speed of globalization picked up in 20th century
i. transportation, communication, imperialism
ii. same multinational corporations everywhere – McDonaldization
iii. Interconnectedness of economies
iv. Economic downturn one place affects everywhere
d. So…it looks like convergence
i. Similar gov’ts – independent, democratic, constitution
ii. economic – stock market, low barriers to trade, strong banking
ii. cultures – educated people w/ English, Hollywood movies, cellfone

2. Globalization doesn’t mean convergence
a. Everything is spread around world, doesn’t mean everyone accepts
i. Not everyone likes or wants, just available
b. Could lead to larger # of people who lash out, resist – aggressive/violent
c. Islamic Fundamentalist countries and historical identity – France
d. Also, self determination and nationalism huge part of 20th century
i. People want to chart own course
ii. Europe no longer rules the world
B. What are the advantages and disadvantages of using units of analysis in the twentieth century, such as the nation, the world, the West, and the Third World?

XII. Major Comparisons and Snapshots
A. Patterns and results of decolonization in Africa and India
1. Africa
a. Patterns
i. Began in 1950s and 1960s, later than Middle East/Asia
ii. Previous native political groups focused on living/working conditions
iii. By 1990s – 46 Independent countries
iv. Population 1960s – 300 million, 1990s – 800 million
b. Legacy
i. Security and economic stability problems rooted in European colonialism
c. North Africa liberation – 1950s
i. Several advantages for decolonization
a. Relatively homogeneous religion, ethnicity, language
b. Existed as political units for decades
c. Colonizing powers left behind technology, industrial
i. Infrastructure – railroads, telegraphs, canals
ii. Egypt, Libya – 1952, Moroccoa, Tunisia – 1956, Algeria – 1962
d. Independence in Sub-Saharan Africa
i. Major freedom movements became radical after WWII
a. Usually nonviolent led by intellectuals
b. Some violent – Mau Mau in Kenya
i. Zimbabwe, S. Africa, Rwanda, Zaire, Angola, Moza
e. Why varying transitions to freedom?
i. Smoothly in Britain and France
a. Native elites educated and prepared
i. Greater participation by natives in interim gov’t
ii. Less chance for multiethnic conflict
ii. Conflict where white settler population maintains power
a. War in Rhodesia
iii. Worst transitions in Belgium and Portugese colonies
a. Colonial masters intensely exploitive
b. No steps taken to educate population
c. Either war against European aggressors and/or civil war
d. Rwanda – left hated two tribes – Hutus and Tutsi
f. South Africa
i. Tainted by clash of white/black citizens
ii. Dutch Afrikaners given control by British
a. Practiced apartheid – extreme racial segregation
iii. Diamond/gold resources make it most industrialized/richest in Af
iv. Extreme pressure on S. Africa to change
a. Internal unrest
b. Economic problems
c. Extreme international pressure
v. Nelson Mandela became sympathetic dissident while imprisoned
a. 1990 Mandela released –
b. African National Congress party wins in 1994
g. Varying methods of modernization
i. Capitalism – Kenya
ii. Socialism – Tanzania, Ghana, Congo, Guinea
iii. Pan-Africanism utopian goal
a. 1991 – African Economic Community
h. Problems facing Independent Africa
i. Dictatorship – begin as democracies > turn into military strongmen
a. Brutal, savage rule
ii. Corruption – function based on patronage, nepotism, graft
iii. Failure to modernize/diversify economies – maintain monoculture
a. Exporting natural resources colonial masters set up
b. Kept profits in hands of political rulers that inherited system
iv. Foreign debt – owe massive amounts of money to Western nations
v. Cold War – nations became pawns in global chess game
vi. Rapid population growth/food shortages
a. Not overpopulated, but rate has surpassed economic growth
b. Many suffer from poor medical care/lack of food
c. Only 22% of cultivatable land actually being used
a. Containing disease impossible – too poor to afford medicine
viii. Lack of cultural/linguistic unity
a. Political border lines meaningless
i. Drawn by Europeans for their convenience/benefit
a. Congo – 200 tribes, 75 languages
b. Only common tongue – that of colonial oppressor
c. How can single state govern equally?
ix. Intertribal/interethnic conflict – almost all wars fought w/in borders
x. Uncontrolled flow of small arms/light weapons
a. Small arms part of daily life, armed conflicts
b. Thousands of children forcibly drafted into paramilitaries
xi. Treatment of women
a. More developed countries, cities some benefits
i. Divorce, birth control, economic freedom, education
b. Women still dominated by men
i. 20% of students women
ii. Marriages arranged
iii. Polygamy permitted
iv. Clitoridectomy still practiced
e. Comparing African/Indian Independence
i. Tragically torn apart by ethnic/religious strife
a. Tensions between Muslims/Hindus reemerged
b. Africa – opportunity for long held tribal hatred to resurface
2. Indian and Pakistani Independence
a. Britain handed over power freely after decades of civil disobedience
i. 1945 Britain ordered to turn over to “responsible Indian hands” 1848
a. Hindu/Muslim clashes sped up process
ii. August 15, 1947 – India and Pakistan given independence
a. Independence led to violence
b. Transfer of population + border conflict = 1 million deaths
c. Ghandhi assassinated in January 1948
i. Hindu extremist upset w/ Gandhi’s tolerance policy
b. Pakistan – modern republic – major regional power
i. Original goal of Muhammad Ali Jinnah not attained
a. Democratic republic – progressive and modern, but also…
b. remain true to Muslim traditions/principles
ii. Pakistan plagued by corruption, political repression, military rule
iii. Huge, expensive rivalry with India
a. Gained nuclear capability in 1990s
c. Modern India
i. World’s largest democracy
ii. Huge inefficiency – can’t balance population growth w/ economic
iii. Continued interethnic/interfaith strife
iv. Congress Party – Jawaharlal Nehru – pushed for secular India
a. Modern, educated, industrial power
v. Diplomatic relationship
a. Nehru balanced China, USSR, Pakistan w/ US
b. Maintained friendly relations w/ both sides
c. preserved nonaligned nation status
vi. Daughter – Indira Gandhi – continued to modernize
i. Criticized for ethnic policy – against Sikh minority
ii. Eventually assassinated
vii. Son – Rajiv Gandhi led Congress Party – assassinated by Sri Lankan separatists
B. Pick two revolutions (Russian, Chinese, Cuban, Iranian) and compare their effects on the roles of women – in West, change gradual over many generations,
1. Russian
2. Chinese
a. Footbinding outlawed
b. Wider educational/career opportunities
c. Women advance
1. Husbands and wives treated equal by law
2. Women can divorce husbands
3. Property rights, equal pay for equal work
4. Encouraged to pursue professional/vocational
3. Cuban
a. Patterns of dictatorship and economic exploitation in Latin America
i. Liberation/modernization dependent on US
ii. Great Depression forced L. America economies to diversify
iii. WWII forced Interwar dictators out of power
iv. Reverted to exploitative economies/dictatorial control
v. Modernization merely put more wealth in upper class hands
vi. Military governments/right wing dictatorships
a. 1970s only Colombia, Venezuela, Costa Rica democratic
b. Dictatorship from other political spectrum – left – Fidel Castro
i. Overthrew right-wing dictator – Fulgencio Batista
ii. Nationalizes industry, carries out land reform
iii. Goals – modernize, industrialize, increase literacy, eliminate inequality
iv. Castro and Che Guevera wanted to combat US imperialism
v. Claimed to be Marxists – turned to USSR for assistance
a. Terminates relationship with US
i. US supports failed attempt to invade Cuba
a. Bay of Pigs Invasion
b. Relationship with USSR leads to Cuban Missile Crisis
c. Effects on Women
4. Iranian
a. Most powerful dictatorships in Middle East – Iraq and Iran
b. Since 1920s, ruled by secular Phalavi shahs
i. Last shah ruled from 1941-1979 - Mohammad Reza Pahlavi
ii. Used oil wealth to industrialize/modernize
iii. Opposed Islamic traditionalism
a. Encouraged Western dress, education
b. No veil on women
c. Eradication of sharia – Islamic law
iv. Ally of the United States
v. Relied on repression to maintain order
a. Regime anti-democratic
c. Enter Shiite cleric Ayatollah Khomeini
i. Islamic fundamentalist exiled by the Shah
ii. Iranian Revolution turned nation into anti-Western (U.S.)
iii. Theocratic dictatorship
iv. Held American hostages for a number of months
v. Went to war with Iraq from 1980-1988
d. Khomeini died 1989 – theocracy still exists
e. Effects on women
i. Initially women could vote, dress traditionally, divorce, become educated, pursue a career
ii. But…reversed immediately with Iranian revolution of 1979
C. Compare the effects of the World Wars on areas outside of Europe
D. Compare legacies of colonialism and patterns of economic development in two of three areas (Africa, Asia, and Latin America)
a. Latin American economic development
i. Huge influence from foreign national investment
a. Sometimes protests against this role
b. Sandinistas – protested US intervention – socialist revolution
ii. US supports governments that support US businesses
a. United Fruit
iii. US supports regimes that profess being democratic/anti-communist
iv. Alliance for Progress – 1961 – develop economies of Latin America
v. Gradually US pulls out influence
a. Panama Canal returned to Panama
b. But still…topples Noriega govt’ – authoritarian/controls drugs
vi. Large issues plague Latin American nations
a. Large foreign debts
b. huge international drug cartels threaten government stability
E. The notion of "the West" and "the East" in the context of Cold War ideology
a. West – led by U.S. – generally democratic, capitalist, prosperous
b. East – led by USSR – communist, totalitarian, substantially less prosperous
c. Japan part of the West – developed along Western lines
d. After fall of Communism
i. Bipolar description no longer works
a. Satellite nations want to be considered West, but Russia?
b. China opening up doors, but Westernizing? – democractic reforms
c. Is anybody part of the East anymore
F. Compare nationalist ideologies and movements in contrasting European and colonial environments
G. Compare the different types of independence struggles
H. Compare the impacts of Western consumer society on two civilizations outside of Europe
I. Compare high tech warfare with guerilla warfare
a. High tech warfare – fighter jets, missiles, tanks
i. Sophisticated, but expensive
ii. Takes months to position weaponry, put together a war plan
iii. But…once implemented…devastatingly efficient
b. Guerilla wafare
i. Behind the scenes, stealthy, lower tech
ii. Individuals fight site to site
iii. Disrupt supply chains, target seemingly random sites
iv. Attacks flexible, random, hard to predict
v. Effective against cumbersome, less flexible, high-tech opponent
J. Different proposals (or models) for third world economic development and the social and political consequences
Examples of What You Need to Know
Below are examples of the types of information you are expected to know contrasted with examples of those things you are not expected to know for the multiple-choice section.
• Causes of the World Wars, but not battles in the wars
• Cultural and political transformations resulting from the wars, but not French political and cultural history
• Fascism, but not Mussolini's internal policies
• Feminism and gender relations, but not Simone de Beauvoir or Huda Shaarawi
• The growth of international organizations, but not the history of the ILO
• Colonial independence movements, but not the details of a particular struggle
• The issue of genocide, but not Cambodia, Rwanda, or Kosovo
• The internationalization of popular culture, but not the Beatles
• Artistic Modernism, but not Dada

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