This paper deals with a new research of designing proactive maintenance processes through which mechanical equipment are conceive, the so-called ‘‘Design, Development and Maintenance of Mechanical Engineering Equipment for the Achievement of Sustainable Development Goals In Nigeria’’ .The mission and position of maintenance in a modern managed factory is due to the fact that maintenance is one of the major processes that affect production.
On becoming a contemporary mechanical Engineer: everything changes, everything is connected, engineering and engineers have never mattered more.
• Mechanical Engineering.
• Mechanical design.
• Mechanical Development.
• Maintenance in Mechanical Engineering.
• Sustainable Development Goals in Mechanical Engineering.
I)- Mechanical Engineering :- Mechanical engineering is one of the broadest engineering disciplines. Mechanical engineers design, develop, build, and test. They deal with anything that moves, from components to machines to the human body. branch that combines engineering physics and mathematics principles with materials science to design, analyze, manufacture and maintain mechanical systems.
II)- Mechanical Design :- Mechanical design is to design parts, components, products, or systems of mechanical nature. For example, designs of various machine elements such as shafts, bearings, clutches, gears, and fasteners fall into the scope of mechanical design. Numerous criteria have been proposed in mechanical design processes, some primary design criteria include functions, safety, reliability, manufacturability, weight, size, wear, maintenance, and liability. In general, a mechanical design problem should be formulated with clear and complete statements of functions, specifications, and evaluation criteria.
III)- Mechanical Development :- Mechanical Engineering is probably the forerunner of many branches of Engineering and has persistently been their companion up to the present. For this reason, the History of Machines embraces a very broad period of the History of Mankind, and can be studied from many perspectives. This paper attempts to link progress in Mechanical Engineering to the great cultures that have arisen throughout the History of Mankind.
This paper begins with the anonymous mechanical developments that appeared in Prehistory and opened up the way to the first civilizations, marked to a large extent, maybe, by Greco-Roman culture in Europe and by China in Asia.
IV)- Maintenance in Mechanical Engineering:- Maintenance Engineering is the discipline and profession of applying engineering concepts for the optimization of equipment, procedures, and departmental budgets to achieve better maintainability, reliability, and availability of equipment.
Maintenance, and hence maintenance engineering, is increasing in importance due to rising amounts of equipment, systems, machineries and infrastructure. Since the Industrial Revolution, devices, equipment, machinery and structures have grown increasingly complex, requiring a host of personnel, vocations and related systems needed to maintain them.
V)- Sustainable Development Goals in Mechanical Engineering:- Apre-requisite for development is growth and that is directly related to production or output of a country. If production is done via a sustainable path it can maintain the sustainability of development. Critical reviews of the problems facing the development of technology were discussed as well as the way forward. Based on the challenges of our immediate society, the level of our technology can only be improved when our teaching and curriculum is reviewed. Hence, the study suggested that our approach as mechanical engineers towards research must change from the basic research concept to applied research concept.
Development of an effective maintenance strategy for critical equipment requires a sound knowledge of the root causes of failure, its possible sources, modes of occurrence, and all related variables, as stated in the preceding sections. With this knowledge base, the methodology for the development of a maintenance strategy for critical equipment will be adjudged based on the following modules:
1) Select equipment that is “critical” to plant operations.
2) Develop the best maintenance strategy for that equipment.
3) Develop a Critical Machine Maintenance Management Program (CMMP) that will plan and/or schedule this maintenance in concert with the load profile in order to:
i. Increase unit availability,
ii. Increase work productivity,
iii. Decrease maintenance frustrations.
The study focused on the role of mechanical engineers towards achieving sustainable development. Critical reviews of the problems facing the development of technology were discussed as well as the way forward. Based on the challenges of our immediate society, the level of our technology can only be improved when our teaching and curriculum is reviewed. Hence, the study suggested that our approach as mechanical engineers towards research must change from the basic research concept to applied research concept. This would not only improve the academic sector but hasten the rate at which problems are solved by the mechanical engineers in the society, thereby bringing sustainability.More so, failure of engineering component is always attributed to design. This study further suggested on the need to improve the design of engineering systems to improve its sustainability
THE MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT AND DESIGN
Mechanical equipment are considered to be fundamental components of process plants such as a Power Plant, Fertilizer Plant, Refineries, Petrochemical Plants, Gas Processing units, pharmaceutical industries etc. This chapter is meant to be an introduction to the following modules of the course, which will focus more on individual applications and problems.
The primary focus of this training session is on piping systems, pressure vessels, heat exchangers and storage tanks.
* Piping Systems :-Pipes and piping systems are the veins and arteries of chemical process plants used for transporting liquids, vapours, slurries, solids etc. under various conditions, as imposed by the process design of the plant. The network of pipes is subjected to extremes of temperature, pressure, flow and combination of these. In addition, they are subject to corrosion, erosion, toxic condition and radioactivity, all of which calls for proper piping design enabling trouble free operation of the plant over a long period of time.
* Pressure Vessels :-Pressure Vessels are “containers” which contain various process fluids at a considerably higher pressure than the normal atmospheric pressure. As these equipment are pressurized, they become very critical due to the inherent safety issues. A failure of a pressure vessel may cause damage to the whole process plant where it is installed. Consequently, their design, manufacture, and operation are regulated by engineering authorities backed up by laws. Pressure Vessels come in various configurations and orientations depending upon their application.
Heat Exchangers Heat Exchangers are used to change the temperature of a fluid by exchanging heat energy of that fluid with another fluid. This exchange of heat is usually without exchange of mass. In the process industry usually three types of heat exchangers are used: Shell & Tube, Air Coolers, Plate
Storage Tanks Storage tanks are also containers of process fluid but differ from pressure vessels in various aspects. The purpose of the storage tanks is to store very large amounts of fluid which may be used later in the process (e-g Demineralized Water Storage tank) or the fluid that is the final product in a processing unit (e-g Oil storage in a refinery). Storage tanks are usually very low pressure containers as compared to pressure vessels. Most of the storage tanks are vertical cylindrical type with very large diameter (some time as large as 100 meters).
Capital cost of piping forms a large portion of the investment in the plant exceeded only by that of major equipment. Pie Chart at the end of this paragraph shows the relative cost of various material components of a plant. As can be seen from the chart, piping accounts for nearly 15% of the overall material cost.
Normally, out of the total engineering effort covering project management, detailed engineering, procurement, inspection and expediting, etc., 65% of the hours are required for detailed engineering. Out of this, 25% is required for piping engineering alone, the balance 40% accounting for civil, mechanical, electrical and instrumentation engineering. Progress in piping engineering being very much dependent upon the feedback of equipment data (static and rotating) as also on control valves and other inline instruments, a close monitoring of the schedule of orders for these equipment and follow up with vendors for data and drawings is required to finalise Piping Plans, generate Isometrics, order bulk Piping Material as well as Piping Speciality Items and release drawings to site for speedy construction and thus facilitate prompt start up.
Training Projects Connecting Dots
The trend in recent years has been to develop and employ better techniques in piping design to save time and also to improve accuracy. Computers are being extensively used to obtain speedy solutions to more complex problems of plant design and to solve problems of stresses in piping. Recent past has seen development of software for production of piping detail drawings, piping isometrics, bill of material, estimation and cost control. Piping Engineer has therefore the added responsibility in understanding and upgrading his / her knowledge on the application of a growing number of techniques of this nature helping speedy work execution. The most revolutionary advancement in the Piping Design in recent past had been the concept of 3D Modelling of the Plant by using sophisticated Software such as PDMS. This provides an opportunity to build the entire plant on soft media in a 3D environment to the last degree of detailing, to be able to identify and rectify practically every problem related to design and construction prior to actual commencement of erection activities at the Site.
Typical piping Arrangement in a Petroleum Refinery.
Development and Maintenance of Engineering Equipment.
Manufacturing industries and business organizations are set up primarily to meet the thirst or need for a particular commodity. Apart from this primary objective of societal satisfaction, the main aim of such organizations or manufacturing industries is to make profit, maximize profit, or minimize cost. In these cases, huge investments are been made in several aspects such as start-up capital, equipment, and machines.
According to recent research on Effective Maintenance Implementation (EMI), it has been reported that the main problems faced by developing and under–developed countries is the lack of a proper maintenance culture, There is no equipment that can operate with 100% efficiency and this buttresses the fact that any equipment, no matter its present or recent reliability status, can breakdown. Maintenance is a system which requires investment and when properly implemented, it:
1. Provides reliable equipment that is safe, well configured and able to achieve timely delivery of orders to customers.
2. Minimizes equipment life cycle cost.
Though “maintenance” is a familiar word to most people, its meaning and interpretation can differ to people in different positions. Generally, people think of the maintenance man as that person in dirty overalls, carrying an oil can and wrenches, who is called upon to fix a damaged or a faulty system. In service and manufacturing industries, maintenance is regarded as shop-floor activities, such as tightening nuts and bolts, lubricating bearings, or repairing a machine parts when they break.
AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF MAINTENANCE
The aim is to achieve increased plant availability through better maintenance management but to do so at a low cost relative to the increased profit. Another aim is to maximize plant and equipment effectiveness in order to achieve targeted rates of return on investment. This attests to the fact that as organizations and equipment become more sophisticated, maintenance expectations begin to evolve. The principal objectives of maintenance can be stated as follows:
a) To extend the useful life span of an item,
b) To increase availability of installed equipment,
c) To ensure operational readiness of all equipment required particularly for emergency purpose,
d) To ensure the safety of people (personnel) using such equipment,
e) To avoid exorbitant expenses on repair of equipment which might occur if the same equipment was not maintained and is allowed to fail.
FACTORS INFLUENCING MAINTENANCE STRATEGIC DEVELOPMENTS
The search to develop a maintenance strategy for critical equipment comes from a deep thirst for maintenance improvement. A good and worthwhile approach to maintenance improvement comes from the successful use and mastery of the key functions of these factors which entails:
These six key functions will form the foundation and backbone of any worthy maintenance strategy to be developed that will be universal and generally be accepted for use in any manufacturing outfit. It worth noting that each of these entities relates to another and the management function comes as the common feature to any of these keys.
Sustainable Development Goals and Environmental Stability in Nigeria.
Longman dictionary of contemporary define sustainability as the ability to continue without causing damage to the environment or ability to continue for longer time. Sustainability originated from the Latin word “sustinere” (since “sus” mean up and “tinere” means to hold). More meaning was provided by Dictionaries but more relevant to this subject being to “endure”, “support” or “maintain”. Sustainability is the capability to be environmentally friendly and not be destructive to the environment. A system with technology that is reuse continually and keeps it perpetual usefulness is known as sustainable system. Sustainable development is that which use the earth’s resources, not destroy the environment and not consume the natural resources. Endurance capability may be seen as s sustainability. Long term responsibility, management with aspect including economic, environmental and social with the idea of stewardship and management of resource responsibly is said to sustainability for humans.
However, this paper carried out further review on the key role of mechanical engineers in achieving the sustainable development goals. This will help the mechanical engineers to change their approach towards research, thereby increase the sustainability of our manufacturing product.
Sustainable Development in Terms of Mechanical Engineering
In March 20, Bruntland submitted a United Nations report titled 'Our Common Future' there the idea of sustainable development was first highlighted in the Word Commission on Environment and Development. Sustainable development is a creation that was done to meet the present generations need and as well not querying the capability of generation to come, in meeting their demand . Sometime this can also be defined as: "Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs". Sustainability therefore, encompass the system of managing ecological balance by protecting the generation to come by not eroding the natural resources. Definition by Bruntland has attained universal acceptance and many see this as means of delivering sustainability as a result of current unmanageable style of society. In 2005, for instance, the Royal Academy of Engineering published principles guiding sustainable development on energy, which can resolve the challenge that, "we are surpassing the planet capacity to accommodate our emissions and many of the resources we used, whist most essential need of majority that occupy the planets cannot be meet.
According to Ehrenfeld, sustainability is the key possibility that will enhance human life to flourish on the planet forever".An acceptable universal definition for sustainability is difficult to achieve as it is expected to get many things done. The earth will be able to support itself if sustainability is achieved. Earth Charter speaks of on "a sustainable global society founded on respect of nature, universal human rights, economic justice and a culture of peace".
Fig. 1: The three pillars of sustainability
Fig. 2: Sustainability diagram representation
Impacts of Mechanical Engineer on Sustainability in Terms of Population, Aggression and Pollution
The impact of mechanical engineer on sustainability is major on the environment and hereby simply divided into three components: population, aggression and pollution.
United Nations population estimates and projections, United nation estimated that world population will be about 7.55 billion in 2017 and may surpass 11 billion people by 2100 as shown in Table 1. The world is metamorphosed radically, and the word population will continue to increase daily as there are more rural area to urban area migration which demands for adoption of sustainable acts. Requirements for green technology to sustainable energy, clean air, drinking water, green transportation, safe waste disposal and renewable energy should be considered.
The attitude towards the natural life and biological system shows that human belligerence toward both animals and plants, for example the issue of wildlife, forests and the extreme rate of over exploring the natural resources available such as wood, water, petroleum, coals, minerals has affected the possibility of achieving environmental sustainability .
Engineering has driven and steer industrial innovation and improved the prosperity of human. In turn, this has led to the creation of new and important group of problems to the environment which range from exposure to air pollution, toxic exposure to water, food, soil, depletion of non-renewable resources (Solid minerals, petroleum, wood), destruction of ecosystem and global climate brunt. Human effects on the climate incorporate the air contamination in urban communities, the poisons including dangerous synthetic concoctions like nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides, unstable natural mixes and particulate issue that deliver photochemical exhaust cloud and corrosive rain, and the chlorofluorocarbons that debase the ozone layer.
4. Roles of Mechanical Engineer in Terms of Design and Infrastructure
System design, infrastructure provision and engineering enterprise management, are main concern of mechanical engineers, as making decision is an act that is performed throughout the life-cycle of the infrastructure, enterprise, process or product. Mechanical engineers play lots of role of such life circle decision making. The one been utilized in most continent is partitioned into five principle phases, which involve Life Cycle Engineering means to integrate state of the art technologies into subsequent sustainability and to enable information and statistics flow.
❖ Frame work requirement, Feasibility Study usually cover this.
❖ Decision scoping, Project Definition Study often capture this.
❖ Preparation and comprehensive design stage
❖ Execution, supply and run
❖ The end of useful life and Maintenance, Repair and Overhaul (MRO)
Framing the requirements draws in a description of the necessity or coveted results. Advertisers describe this the 'necessities and needs' for new commodity or service, and the surrounding is finished by portraying the challenges, issue or problems to be handled in its general setting and vital concurring the limits to the decision making. Regularly, such work and results are attempted and decided through a Feasibility Study be that as it may, at the opposite end of the size of engineering projects; they may essentially be done in the beginning periods of a generally consistent outline process. Progressively, there is likewise a need to acknowledge deliberately what it is adequate to fabricate or make the customer or client for the engineering design unable to suit a significant jump in design idealization to acknowledge a full practical improvement approach. This approach from a sensible point of view should be incorporated into the plan.
In this phase, important effort will be vital to conclude on cautiously constructed characterization of the challenge(s) to rectified the problem(s) encountered, therefore to decide on the goals, purposes and aspiration for the project in order to developed the engineering decisions. These results are accomplished through an established project descriptive research or plainly outcome derived from the earlier phases of the smoothly continuous design proceeding previously hint at. It is pivotal to the effective conveyance of sustainable development to understand that this is the phase where thorough thought of sustainable development challenges, and specifically a support to severe approach will create the best advantage. The more outline choices are derived at this phase without thought of sustainable development, the less sustainability development can be achieved.
Preparation and comprehensive Design
Preparation can effectively be grouped as an analytical process that introduces the action that will be taken, which involves an assessment of the alternative accessible, developing the aims and goals that would display a favourable outcome and a method of attaining them. Comprehensive design at that stage involves the creating of results, component or process preparation, or groundwork preparation that attains the entire numerous yet associated prerequisites, wellness for reason, security, quality, esteem for cash, aesthetics, constructability, and usability and material proficiency. It is accomplished that alongside the reduction of the antagonistic socio-environmental impacts, the augmentation of the surroundings where attainable, and the improvement of quality of life for end users, workers and nearby resident alike. This is a substantial threat for engineering designers yet one that can with cautious idea, imagination, advancement and persistence be conveyed for societal advantage. Despite the fact that there is a different phase of 'End of usable life' to think of, is indispensable that, at this Preparation and Design phase, dynamic thought of these challenges is incorporated. A major instance of such attention is the significance of design for dismantling, to consider the utmost reuse and recycling of the resources installed in the infrastructure or end result or goods created.
Execution, Distribution and Service
Execution, distribution and service involve the critical recognition of the designs, for instance, a genuine product, development of advanced foundation or application of a recent method or practice in chemical engineering. It bears rehashing that it is vital to perceive that prior practical methodologies are to a highly powerless at this phase to being toppled through foolhardy reactions used in unanticipated troubles and resource requirements, e.g., the cost lessening measures taking on the appearance as ‘value engineering’. The fundamentals of sustainable development as a result, have to be adapted in all levels in an engineering resolution reached and also in its applications.
The engineers need to be very conscious about the growing environment amid the consumers and overall law of a government or constitution, within reach is a huge burden and tension on inventors as well as engineers in working, in achieving sustainable developments. The development here is defined in terms of industrialization, is fundamental, essential, necessary and imperative for the social-economic advancement of any communities. Antithetical to environmentalist, sustainability is an approach or notion which takes into consideration the socio physical, public and, the fiscal or monitory targets and as an alternative, the measurement of a community or association. In conclusion, to achieve a global transformation on our economy through sustainable development, we have to promote our current policies and channel our vision into the vision of the United Nation agenda for sustainable development. Aside that, young minds in mechanical engineering should be trained in anticipating the sustainability problems oppugn at contributing to a global sustainable development.
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